File Name: identification of bactrocera carambolae .zip
Schutze et al. This pest species utilizes a wide range of hosts.
Bactrocera carambolae is one of the approximately sibling species of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex and considered to be very closely related to B. Due to their high morphological similarity and overlapping distribution, as well as to their economic impact and quarantine status, the development of reliable markers for species delimitation between the two taxa is of great importance.
Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of B. The mitogenome of B. Comparisons of the analyzed B. Phylogenetic analysis based on Bactrocera mitogenomes supports that B. The present complete mitochondrial sequences of B. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex consists of approximately morphologically similar taxa distributed mainly in South-East Asia and Australasia [ 1 ]. Although most members within the complex present no economic interest, a small number of them are serious pests infesting many commercial fruits.
Among them are the Oriental fruit fly, B. Hence, the clarification of their phylogenetic relationships and the development of robust species discriminating tools for the above taxa presents not only scientific, but also great economic interest as the outcome potentially affects international trade regulations and quarantine policies.
As examples, such markers can support the quick identification of the origin of new invasions or expansions of pests as well as the development and application of species-specific pest control methods that include mass rearing and release of laboratory insects to suppress local populations, such as the sterile insect technique SIT , since they allow both assessing the suitability of different strains for local applications and identifying released males [ 3 , 4 ]. Species delimitation among the members of the B.
Recently, three taxa have been synonymized as one biological species: B. However, the synonymization by Schutze et al. The species status of B. On the other hand, identification of morphological hybrids [ 33 ] and data from nuclear protein coding genes [ 14 ] and microsatellite analysis [ 34 ] suggest naturally occurring hybridization and gene flow between the two taxa.
Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA is a very popular molecular marker for evolutionary, phylogenetic and population genetic studies and is informative for analyses at several taxonomic levels [ 35 ]. Partial mitochondrial sequences have been extensively used for exploring relationships among species of the Bactrocera genus; however, they had their limitations, for instance in the discrimination among closely related members of the B.
On the other hand, complete mitochondrial genome sequences, which are accumulating rapidly in databases nowadays, have proven to be a valuable alternative approach for phylogeny reconstruction and molecular systematics in several insect groups [ 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ], including Tephritidae [ 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 ]. However, it is becoming more evident that factors related to mtDNA inheritance, such as bottlenecks, introgression, heteroplasmy and sweeps by reproductive symbionts, restrict the usefulness of mtDNA as a standalone marker for species delimitation [ 65 , 66 , 67 ].
Therefore, the combined use of both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers together with information from different disciplines is expected to provide a more accurate and indisputable species resolution under the umbrella of Integrative Taxonomy [ 68 ]. In the current study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three well-characterized B.
Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis within Bactrocera was performed focusing on the placing of the B. The B. The Malaysian strains were collected from infested wax apples Syzygium spp. Close morphological identification confirmed all flies emerged from this source was B. In addition, B.
The above colonies represented three populations originating from Saraburi Thailand , Philippines B. Their status has been verified by taxonomists and the insect materials have been used in several research projects [ 11 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 69 ]. Negative controls were included in DNA extraction. Twenty-seven pairs of primers targeting overlapping fragments were designed by the Oligoexplorer and Oligoanalyzer programs Supplementary Table S2.
Each fragment was sequenced in both directions and the sequences obtained by the forward and the reverse reactions were merged using EMBOSS Merger [ 71 ] after careful manual inspection. In cases of inconsistencies reactions were repeated. Sequence annotation was manually performed by comparison to the B.
Multiple sequence alignments for genome annotation as well as for identification of polymorphic sites were performed by ClustalOmega www. Phylogenetic analysis based on alignments of complete mtDNA sequences was performed using all Bactrocera complete mitogenomes available Supplementary Table S1 dataset 2.
Multiple sequence alignments were constructed by ClustalW using default parameters. All the above analyses, alignments, model selection and phylogeny reconstruction, were performed in MEGA 7. To assess nodal support, ultrafast UFBoot [ 80 ] bootstrap replicates were performed.
The mitogenomes of three B. The above analysis clustered the sequences of our specimens together with the other B.
The mitogenomes of the M8 and S2 individuals were completely sequenced and found to be of 15, and 15, bp long, respectively. The Bactrocera carambolae mitochondrial genome. Genes shown at the outer circle are encoded by the H-strand whereas those at the inner circle are encoded by the L-strand. Abbreviations as in Table 1. The initiation codons were identical to those reported for B.
The GTG initiation codon seems to be characteristic for the ATP8 gene of the species of the Bactrocera subgenus [ 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 83 , 84 ]. Three of the PCGs possess an incomplete termination codon Table 1 ; TA for COI , which is characteristic for all Bactrocera species analyzed so far and T for ND1 and ND5 similarly to the majority of tephritids [ 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 ].
Incomplete termination codons are common in animal mitochondrial DNA and are likely to be completed by post-transcriptional polyadenylation [ 89 ]. Overlaps that are similar in size and position are common among tephritids [ 52 , 55 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 ]. Similarly, the 12S rRNA genes are nucleotides long for M5 and S2 and for M8 positions: 14,—14,, 14,—14, and 14,—14,, respectively Table 1.
Their positions and sizes 63—72 nucleotides follow the typical organization for insect mtDNA. Similarly, to all tephritids, the mitogenome of B. Tandem repeats have been identified in the control regions of Bactrocera as well as in other tephritid species [ 54 , 60 , 81 ]. The longest intergenic spacer IGS region in the analyzed B.
Although the position of the longest IGS seems to be conserved among several species of the Bactrocera subgenus [ 53 , 55 , 56 , 62 , 63 ], the sequence presents no significant similarity except within the B. This IGS folded into secondary structures and its first 33 nucleotides could be found repeated in the D-loop region of B. Yu et al. However, the above insertion was not observed in any of the three B. The above findings suggest that small insertions in the spacer lying between the tRNA Cys and tRNA Tyr genes are more likely to represent individual- or population- rather than species-specific polymorphisms.
The three B. The identity scores obtained between the complete mitogenome sequences from B. The identity scores were extremely high even for the D-loop region, which is considered the most variable region of the mitogenome However, alignment of the above sequences revealed a small number 12 of positions that consistently differed between the B.
Almost all of the above polymorphisms were found within the PCG sequences and could be potential markers for discriminating the two very closely related taxa analyzed. Nonetheless, additional data at population level is required to assess whether these polymorphisms are fixed and species-specific.
The interspecies nucleotide polymorphisms observed in the complete mitochondrial sequences of B. Gene abbreviation as in Table 1 Position refers to nucleotide position within respective gene. Topologies were very similar to other recent analyses also using data of complete mitogenomes to explore phylogenetic relationships within the Bactrocera genus [ 54 , 58 , 63 , 82 , 83 , 91 , 92 ] and confirmed the very close relationship of the B.
Within the complex Figure 2 B , the B. The above results suggest the differentiation of the B. However, additional data and analyses would be required to clarify the issue of species limits between the above two taxa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method. A Tree based on 26 Bactrocera complete mitochondrial genome sequences; B part of the tree depicted in A presenting only the clade of the B. Ceratitis capitata was used as outgroup to root the tree.
The evolutionary history was inferred by using the Maximum Likelihood method based on the General Time Reversible model. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches; only the ones higher than 50 are presented. Asterisks indicate the sequences analyzed in the present study. In summary, the complete mitochondrial sequence of three B.
These are the first published B. The structure and the organization of the B. The availability of several complete B. Phylogenetic analyses within the Bactrocera genus supported the differentiation of B.
The future disposal of additional complete mitosequences from other members of the B. Nevertheless, multidisciplinary approaches, combining mitochondrial and nuclear genetic information together with data on different aspects of species biology in the frame of Integrative Taxonomy, are considered necessary for reliable identification of species boundaries within this speciose complex of destructive pests.
We would also like to thank Ilias Kappas for his valuable help with the phylogenetic analyses. List of the mitogenome sequences used in the present study, Table S2. List of the primers used for the amplification of the mitogenomes of the Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis specimens, Table S3. Conceptualization E. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Insects v.
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Bactrocera carambolae , also known as the carambola fruit fly , is a fruit fly species in the family Tephritidae , and is native to Asia. Bactrocera carambolae are specifically native to Malaysia, southern Thailand and western Indonesia. Bactrocera carambolae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis species complex and are genetically similar except for slight differences in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Bactrocera carambolae can be difficult to distinguish from other B. This species is generally characterized by a predominantly black thorax , while featuring abdominal segments with brown lateral posterior markings and a medial longitudinal black band over all three tergum. In addition to other Diptera , this species has one pair of membranous wings, with hind wings reduced to knob-like structures.
Abstract, focus of research are : 1. The relationship between the type of fruit flies with its host fruit species, 4. This research is qualitative descriptive, data is stored in the notes field, the number of respondents there are 11, there informant number The research subjects defined by purposive sampling, the data networking techniques with snowball sampling, research site is in Tulang Bawang. Collecting data using interviews, observation, documentation, and questionnaires. Checking the validity of the findings using triangulation of data sources and triangulation methods.
Alies van Sauers-Muller. Over 11, fruit samples were collected from many locations and the total of 20 fruit species were recorded as host, ranging in infestation from heavy to occasional.
Oviposition deterrent is chemical compounds which are used for avoiding eggs deposition. The oviposition deterrent resulted from eggs deposition is valuable information that can be manipulated for managing its population. The objective of this research was to determine the presence of oviposition deterrent resulted by female Bactrocera carambolae on mango. Extraction of oviposition deterrent was conducted by maceration method. The preference test was performed using two arms olfactometer, meanwhile the oviposition deterrent test was conducted by exposed gravid females to fruit that already smeared with extracts. The result revealed that gravid females of B. Oviposition deterrent test indicated that methanol extract at category 3 and 5 acted as a deterrent.
Fruit flies Bactrocera spp. Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the major pests in chili plants. The information about abundance and dominance of fruit fly species in chili orchard was limited, especially in Bangka Island.
Bactrocera carambolae is one of the approximately sibling species of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex and considered to be very closely related to B. Due to their high morphological similarity and overlapping distribution, as well as to their economic impact and quarantine status, the development of reliable markers for species delimitation between the two taxa is of great importance. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of B. The mitogenome of B. Comparisons of the analyzed B.
The genus includes approximately species. Many of these are either known or believed to have the potential to damage a diverse array of important crops. A few of the important pest species include:. Fruit flies in the genera Anastrepha and Ceratitis , including economically important pests such as the Mexican fruit fly and the Mediterranean fruit fly, may be confused with Bactrocera species. Very broad host range that includes over species. Some species specialize on one family while others are potential pests of many families of plants. A partial list includes:.
The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae , is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics.
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