File Name: analysis of health careter and impact of settlement .zip
The general rule of taxability for amounts received from settlement of lawsuits and other legal remedies is Internal Revenue Code IRC Section 61 that states all income is taxable from whatever source derived, unless exempted by another section of the code. IRC Section provides an exclusion from taxable income with respect to lawsuits, settlements and awards.
As the spread of Covid dominates the news, we have all seen and experienced the parallel spread of anxiety. Indeed, in a crisis, our mental state often seems only to exacerbate the challenge, becoming a major obstacle in itself. How can we change this? As the spread and far-reaching impacts of Covid dominate the world news, we have all been witnessing and experiencing the parallel spread of worry, anxiety, and instability. Indeed, in a crisis, our mental state often seems only to exacerbate an already extremely challenging situation, becoming a major obstacle in itself.
In this explainer, we set out the main commitments in the plan and provide our view of what they might mean, highlighting the opportunities and challenges for the health and care system as it moves to put the plan into practice.
For nearly a decade, the NHS has experienced a significant slowdown in funding growth, while demand for services — and the cost of delivering those services — has grown rapidly. Cuts to public health and social care funding have added further pressure. As a result, NHS performance has declined.
Workforce shortages are widespread, with more than , whole-time equivalent staff vacancies in hospitals, including more than 40, nurse vacancies.
To unlock this funding, national NHS bodies were asked to develop a long-term plan for the service. The resulting document, the NHS long-term plan, was published on 7 January Yet it remains below the average increases of 3.
The plan builds on the policy platform laid out in the NHS five year forward view Forward View which articulated the need to integrate care to meet the needs of a changing population. This was followed by subsidiary strategies, covering general practice, cancer, mental health and maternity services, while the new models of care outlined in the Forward View have been rolled out through a programme of vanguard sites.
Local authority public health spending and social care are also excluded. Consequently, it is a plan for the NHS, not the whole health and care system. The Spending Review, which is due to be published later this year and will outline the funding settlement for local government including social care and public health, will therefore have an important impact on whether wider improvements in population health can be delivered, as will the Green Papers on social care and prevention when they are eventually published.
These priorities include cancer, cardiovascular disease, maternity and neonatal health, mental health see separate section below , stroke, diabetes and respiratory care. In cancer care, the plan aims to boost survival by speeding up diagnosis. It includes a package of measures to extend screening and overhaul diagnostic services with the aim of diagnosing 75 per cent of cancers at stages I or II by A review of cancer screening programmes and diagnostic capacity will also be undertaken to report back in the summer.
The maternity and neonatal section builds on the measures being implemented following the National Maternity Review with the aim of halving still births, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality and serious brain injury in newborn babies by Among a range of commitments, continuity of care during pregnancy, birth and after birth will be improved, bed capacity in intensive neonatal care will increase in areas where this is currently lacking and mental health services and other support for pregnant women and new mothers will be improved.
The plan sets out a number of actions to improve detection and care for people with cardiovascular disease CVD and respiratory disease, prevent diabetes and improve stroke services.
The aim is to prevent up to , cases of heart attack, stroke and dementia over the next 10 years. In line with the Forward View and the General practice forward view , improving care outside hospitals is one of the headline commitments in the plan.
The plan confirms that general practices will join together to form primary care networks — groups of neighbouring practices typically covering 30—50, people. Practices will enter network contracts, alongside their existing contracts, which will include a single fund through which network resources will flow.
There is also a strong emphasis on developing digital services so that within five years, all patients will have the right to access GP consultations via telephone or online. This will involve developing multidisciplinary teams, including GPs, pharmacists, district nurses, and allied health professionals working across primary care and hospital sites.
Over the next five years, all parts of the country will be required to increase capacity in these teams so that crisis response services can meet response times set out in guidelines by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE.
As with primary and community services, national leaders have used the long-term plan to reassert their commitment to improving mental health services, both for adults and for children and young people. It also highlights the need for capital investment, as identified by a recent review of the Mental Health Act, to ensure suitable therapeutic environments for inpatients.
There are two significant commitments to developing new models of care. The first is to create a comprehensive offer for children and young people, from birth to age 25, with a view to tackling problems with transitions of care.
There is also a strong focus on improving care for people with learning disabilities and autism. Commitments include increasing access to support for children and young people with an autism diagnosis, developing new models of care to provide care closer to home and investing in intensive, crisis and forensic community support. The plan commits to rolling out urgent treatment centres UTCs across the country by so that urgent care outside hospitals becomes more consistent for patients.
The plan estimates that up to one-third of all people admitted to hospital in an emergency could be discharged on the same day by rolling out this model. Ambulance services are tasked with implementing the recommendations of a recent review of operational performance led by Lord Carter and will be subject to a new commissioning framework. Unlike some previous NHS strategies, the long-term plan does not assume that moves to strengthen primary and community care will reduce demand for inpatient hospital care.
Instead, its plans for hospital bed numbers and staffing assume that acute care will grow broadly in line with the past three years although the plan does not specify what figure it is using for this. The plan includes an ambitious pledge to use technology to fundamentally redesign outpatient services over five years. It is not yet clear what this redesign will involve. Although the plan notes that these changes will have implications for how waiting times performance is calculated, there is no commitment to meet the 92 per cent target for week waits.
Instead, over five years, the volume of planned activity will increase year-on-year to reduce long waits and cut the number of people on the waiting list currently more than 4 million. The commitment to reduce long waits is given teeth by the reintroduction of fines for providers and commissioners where patients wait 12 months or more. Reducing delayed discharges from hospital remains a priority.
The plan aims to cut the average number of daily delayed transfers of care DTOC beds to around 4, and maintain that level over the next two years before reducing it further DTOC beds averaged 4, in November Changes to primary and community care may help here, although investment in social care will also be crucial.
The plan signals changes to the configuration of hospital services. Trusts will be supported to collaborate to improve services for example, through provider groups and, where appropriate, formal mergers will be green-lighted. Further consolidation of specialist stroke services is also signalled and there is a commitment to a standard delivery model for smaller acute hospitals serving rural populations.
When the Prime Minister announced the new funding settlement, she was clear that, over time, all NHS organisations should get back into balance.
The penultimate chapter of the plan sets out how this will be achieved. Much of the detail relating to these initiatives is left to the recently published Planning Guidance. The problems currently being experienced by providers partly reflect flaws in an NHS financial regime that is in desperate need of reform. The measures in the plan — which follow on from changes to the system of central financial support already announced by national NHS bodies — are an effort to address this.
There are a number of measures aimed at supporting delivery of integrated care and incentivising system-based working to improve population health. Workforce shortages are currently the biggest challenge facing the health service. The plan explicitly recognises the scale of this challenge and sets out a number of specific measures to address it. However, many wider changes will not be finalised until after the Spending Review, when the budget for training, education and continuing professional development CPD is set.
For nursing, the aim is to reduce the vacancy rate from More accessible routes into nursing will also be introduced, including a new online nursing degree linked to guaranteed clinical placements and continued investment to support an expansion of apprenticeships, with new nursing associates starting in There is also an ambition to shift the balance from specialised to generalist roles in line with the needs of patients with multiple long-term conditions.
To support general practice, the intention is to continue to increase the number of other members of the primary care team, such as clinical pharmacists and physiotherapists, although much of the detail on this is again left to the forthcoming workforce implementation plan. The plan sets a long-term ambition to train more staff domestically. In the meantime, it emphasises the need for a continued inflow of international recruits. The forthcoming workforce implementation plan will outline new national arrangements to support NHS organisations with overseas recruitment and explore the potential to expand the Medical Training Initiative.
By the end of the year period covered by the plan, the vision is for people to be increasingly cared for and supported at home using remote monitoring via wearable devices and digital tools.
This will involve NHS organisations putting in place electronic records and a range of other digital capabilities. The Global Digital Exemplars programme will admit new organisations and create models for technology adoption and a shared record through Local Health and Care Record Exemplars. To facilitate these changes, a number of policies previously announced by the Secretary of State have now become firm commitments.
Similarly, to promote interoperability, there is now a commitment to introduce controls during to ensure that technology suppliers to the NHS comply with agreed standards. Once established, the national workforce group will also consider a range of options to improve the NHS leadership pipeline, including expanding the NHS graduate management training scheme and the potential for a professional registration scheme for senior NHS leaders.
All of these actions will build on existing recommendations in the national strategic framework, Developing people — improving care. The plan also says more will be done to develop and embed cultures of compassion, inclusion and collaboration across the NHS. Specific actions include programmes and interventions to ensure a more diverse leadership cadre, a focus on increasing staff understanding of improvement knowledge and skills, and new pledges to better support senior leaders including improving the approach to assurance and performance management.
More broadly, the plan commits to do more to support current staff, including increasing investment in CPD although this will depend on the outcome of the Spending Review , taking steps to promote flexibility and career development, and tackling bullying and harassment.
Highlighting the need to create genuine partnerships between professionals and patients, it commits to training staff to be able to have conversations that help people make the decisions that are right for them.
There is also a commitment to increasing support for people to manage their own health, beginning in areas such as diabetes prevention and management. As part of this shift, the plan focuses on personalisation. There is a commitment to rolling out the NHS comprehensive model of personalised care which brings together 6 programmes aimed at supporting a whole population, person-centred approach , so that it reaches 2.
The plan also includes a welcome focus on supporting carers. This includes introducing quality markers for primary care, highlighting best practice in identifying carers and providing them with appropriate support.
The plan confirms the shift towards integrated care and place-based systems which has been a defining feature of recent NHS policy. ICSs will be the main mechanism for achieving this — the plan says that ICSs will cover all areas of England by April — and will increasingly focus on population health. The plan outlines several core requirements for ICSs such as the establishment of a partnership board comprising representatives from across the system but stops short of setting out a detailed blueprint for their size or structure.
It also recognises that NHS organisations will need to work in partnership with local authorities, the voluntary sector and other local partners to improve population health.
From , population health management tools will be rolled out, enabling ICSs to identify groups at risk of adverse health outcomes and inequalities and to plan services accordingly. ICSs will also be supported by changes to funding flows and performance frameworks. Existing approaches to bringing together health and social care budgets are also encouraged, with an expectation that the social care Green Paper will set out further proposals.
There will also be a review of the Better Care Fund. The plan suggests that progress can continue to be made within the current legislative framework but also puts forward a list of potential legislative changes that would accelerate progress, in response to requests from the Health and Social Care Select Committee and the government.
The proposed changes include allowing joint decision-making between providers and commissioners and reducing the role of competition in the NHS.
There are also plans to introduce new programmes for specific diseases and conditions, and to scale up existing ones. For example, the number of places on the Diabetes Prevention Programme will double over the next five years. ICSs will have a key role in helping to deliver these programmes and in working with local authorities, the voluntary sector and other local partners to improve population health and tackle the wider determinants of ill health.
Spending in these areas is not covered by the plan as it is routed through local authorities. To support this ambition and to ensure that local plans and national programmes are focused on reducing inequalities, specific, measurable goals will be set. Local areas will need to set out how they will achieve this, drawing on a menu of evidence-based interventions developed by NHS England, Public Health England and others.
Changes to commissioning allocations for CCGs will ensure that a higher share of funding is targeted at areas with high inequalities and a review of the inequalities adjustment to funding formulae will be undertaken. The plan includes specific goals for particular groups — for example, greater continuity of midwife care for black, Asian and minority ethnic women and women from deprived groups; an increase in physical health checks for people with severe mental health.
A slum is usually a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons. Due to increasing urbanization of the general populace, slums became common in the 18th to late 20th centuries in the United States and Europe. Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons. Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters, and social conflicts. It is thought  that slum is a British slang word from the East End of London meaning "room", which evolved to "back slum" around meaning 'back alley, street of poor people. Numerous other non English terms are often used interchangeably with slum : shanty town , favela , rookery , gecekondu , skid row , barrio , ghetto , bidonville, taudis, bandas de miseria, barrio marginal, morro, loteamento, barraca, musseque, tugurio, solares, mudun safi, kawasan kumuh, karyan, medina achouaia, brarek, ishash, galoos, tanake, baladi, trushchoby , chalis, katras, zopadpattis, basti, estero, looban, dagatan, umjondolo, watta, udukku, and chereka bete. The word slum has negative connotations, and using this label for an area can be seen as an attempt to delegitimize that land use when hoping to repurpose it.
The Carter Center supports research and dialogue to prevent further violence in Syria with the aim of supporting reform, economic recovery, reconstruction, and the return of refugees. Above, Syrian children in a refugee camp in Turkey on the Syrian-Turkish border. Since conflict erupted in March , The war in Syria has largely come to an end, except in Idlib and other territorial pockets not under control of the Syrian government. Through successive military advances and surrender agreements over the course of , the Syrian government and its allies have all but eliminated the potential for regime change by force and have reasserted government authority over most of its territory. Having been engaged in Syria since before , The Carter Center has long-term relationships with all stakeholders and is uniquely capable of building trust among Syrians and between Syrians and the international community. The Carter Center's work in Syria is designed to bring stakeholders together to develop visions for a political resolution to the conflict and to channel their ideas to top-level mediation processes.
The author would like to thank Dr James Jupp and colleagues Dr Luke Buckmaster and Dr Mark Rodrigues for their insightful comments and assistance in the preparation of this paper. From its genesis as a policy framework to respond to the needs of immigrants, multiculturalism became a concept that articulated the character of the growing ethno-cultural diversity of society in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Always contested, multiculturalism and the ethno-cultural diversity that it symbolises have become increasingly controversial and subject to scrutiny in response to the security and social challenges of the early twenty-first century. This paper provides an overview of Australia's federal multicultural policies, briefly draws attention to state and territory multicultural policy frameworks, and reviews some key issues in recent public debates about multiculturalism in Australia and overseas, with a focus on post-immigration multiculturalism. Part One of the paper reviews the evolution of Australia's federal multicultural policies between their introduction in the s up to the period of the federal election. It is largely descriptive and is intended to identify key policy statements and reports surrounding government policy statements. Part Two of the paper highlights prominent issues in public debates about multiculturalism and ethno-cultural diversity through a review of relevant literature and media commentary.
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Хм-м… - пробурчал Хейл с набитым ртом. - Милая ночка вдвоем в Детском манеже. - Втроем, - поправила Сьюзан. - Коммандер Стратмор у .
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