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'The Old Vedic language had its origin outside the subcontinent. But not Sanskrit.'

Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and deities associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans , the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language. Although the mythological motifs are not directly attested — since Proto-Indo-European speakers lived in prehistoric societies — scholars of comparative mythology have reconstructed details from inherited similarities found among Indo-European languages , based on the assumption that parts of the Proto-Indo-Europeans' original belief systems survived in the daughter traditions.

Some myths are also securely dated to Proto-Indo-European times, since they feature both linguistic and thematic evidence of an inherited motif: a story portraying a mythical figure associated with thunder and slaying a multi-headed serpent to release torrents of water that had previously been pent up; a creation myth involving two brothers, one of whom sacrifices the other in order to create the world; and probably the belief that the Otherworld was guarded by a watchdog and could only be reached by crossing a river.

Various schools of thought exist regarding possible interpretations of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European mythology. The main mythologies used in comparative reconstruction are Indo-Iranian , Baltic , Roman , and Norse , often supported with evidence from the Celtic , Greek , Slavic , Hittite , Armenian , Illyrian , and Albanian traditions as well. The mythology of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is not directly attested and it is difficult to match their language to archaeological findings related to any specific culture from the Chalcolithic.

This method is known as the comparative method. Different schools of thought have approached the subject of Proto-Indo-European mythology from different angles. West , [7] [8] this school lost most of its scholarly support in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Ritual School, which first became prominent in the late nineteenth century, holds that Proto-Indo-European myths are best understood as stories invented to explain various rituals and religious practices.

The Functionalist School, by contrast, holds that myths served as stories reinforcing social behaviours through the meta-narrative justification of a traditional order. The Structuralist School argues that Proto-Indo-European mythology was largely centered around the concept of dualistic opposition. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov.

One of the earliest attested and thus one of the most important of all Indo-European mythologies is Vedic mythology , [18] especially the mythology of the Rigveda , the oldest of the Vedas.

Another of the most important source mythologies for comparative research is Roman mythology. Baltic mythology has also received a great deal of scholarly attention, as it is linguistically the most conservative and archaic of all surviving branches, but has so far remained frustrating to researchers because the sources are so comparatively late.

Although Scythians are considered relatively conservative in regards to Proto-Indo-European cultures, retaining a similar lifestyle and culture, [26] their mythology has very rarely been examined in an Indo-European context and infrequently discussed in regards to the nature of the ancestral Indo-European mythology. At least three deities, Tabiti , Papaios and Api , are generally interpreted as having Indo-European origins, [27] [28] while the remaining have seen more disparate interpretations.

Influence from Siberian, Turkic and even Near Eastern beliefs, on the other hand, are more widely discussed in literature. There was a fundamental opposition between the never-aging gods dwelling above in the skies, and the mortal humans living beneath on earth. West, the idea of the world-tree axis mundi is probably a later import from north Asiatic cosmologies: "The Greek myth might be derived from the Near East, and the Indic and Germanic ideas of a pillar from the shamanistic cosmologies of the Finno-Ugric and other peoples of central and northern Asia.

There is no scientific consensus which of the variants is the 'true' reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European cosmogonic myth. Mallory , Douglas Q. Adams , David W. Anthony , and in part by Martin L. Leeming also notes that the concept of the Cosmic Egg , symbolizing the primordial state from which the universe arises, is found in many Indo-European creation myths. The first man Manu and his giant twin Yemo are crossing the cosmos , accompanied by the primordial cow.

To create the world, Manu sacrifices his brother and, with the help of heavenly deities the Sky-Father , the Storm-God and the Divine Twins , [41] [45] forges both the natural elements and human beings from his remains. Manu thus becomes the first priest after initiating sacrifice as the primordial condition for the world order, and his deceased brother Yemo the first king as social classes emerge from his anatomy priesthood from his head, the warrior class from his breast and arms, and the commoners from his sexual organs and legs.

Trito first suffers at his hands, but the hero eventually manages to overcome the monster, fortified by an intoxicating drink and aided by the Sky-Father. He eventually gives the recovered cattle back to a priest for it to be properly sacrificed. According to Lincoln, Manu and Yemo seem to be the protagonists of "a myth of the sovereign function, establishing the model for later priests and kings", while the legend of Trito should be interpreted as "a myth of the warrior function, establishing the model for all later men of arms".

The story of Trito served as a model for later cattle raiding epic myths and most likely as a moral justification for the practice of raiding among Indo-European peoples. In the original legend, Trito is only taking back what rightfully belongs to his people, those who sacrifice properly to the gods. Some scholars have proposed that the primeval being Yemo was depicted as a two-folded hermaphrodite rather than a twin brother of Manu, both forming indeed a pair of complementary beings entwined together.

Many Indo-European beliefs explain aspects of human anatomy from the results of the original dismemberment of Yemo: his flesh usually becomes the earth, his hair grass, his bone yields stone, his blood water, his eyes the sun, his mind the moon, his brain the clouds, his breath the wind, and his head the heavens.

The motif of Manu and Yemo has been influential throughout Eurasia following the Indo-European migrations. The realm of death was generally depicted as the Lower Darkness and the land of no return. In Slovene folk belief, "the world of the dead was situated beyond the waters". In a recurrent motif, the Otherworld contains a gate, generally guarded by a multi-headed sometimes multi-eyed dog who could also serve as a guide and ensured that the ones who entered could not get out.

The motif of a canine guardian of the entrance to the Otherworld is also attested in Persian mythology , where two four-eyed dogs guard the Chinvat Bridge , a bridge that marks the threshold between the world of the living and the world of the dead.

In Nordic mythology, a dog stands on the road to Hel ; it is often assumed to be identical with Garmr, the howling hound bound at the entrance to Gnipahellir.

In Albanian folklore, a never-sleeping three-headed dog is also said to live in the world of the dead. Remains of dogs found in grave sites of the Iron Age Wielbark culture , [96] and dog burials of Early Medieval North-Western Slavs in Pomerania [97] would suggest the longevity of the belief. The mytheme possibly stems from an older Ancient North Eurasian belief, as evidenced by similar motifs in Native American and Siberian mythology , in which case it might be one of the oldest mythemes recoverable through comparative mythology.

Several traditions reveal traces of a Proto-Indo-European eschatological myth that describes the end of the world following a cataclysmic battle. The subjects are treated unjustly by the new ruler, forced to erect fortifications while the archdemon favours instead outsiders, on whom his support relies. After a particularly heinous act, the archdemon is exiled by his subjects and takes refuge among his foreign relatives. The myth ends with the interruption of the cosmic order and the conclusion of a temporal cyclic era.

In the cosmological model proposed by Jean Haudry , the Proto-Indo-European sky is composed of three "heavens" diurnal, nocturnal and liminal rotating around an axis mundi , each having its own deities, social associations and colors white, dark and red, respectively. Deities of the diurnal sky could not transgress the domain of the nocturnal sky, inhabited by its own sets of gods and by the spirits of the dead.

For instance, Zeus cannot extend his power to the nightly sky in the Iliad. In this vision, the liminal or transitional sky embodies the gate or frontier dawn and twilight binding the two other heavens. Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed that the peripheral part of the earth was inhabited by a people exempt from the hardships and pains that affect us.

The archaic Proto-Indo-European language — [note 5] had a two-gender system which originally distinguished words between animate and inanimate, a system used to separate a common term from its deified synonym. Diversely personified, they were frequently seen as fulfilling multiple functions, while Proto-Indo-European goddesses shared a lack of personification and narrow functionalities as a general characteristic.

It is not probable that the Indo-Europeans had a fixed canon of deities or assigned a specific number to them. They become sated by just looking at this nectar", while the Edda tells us that "on wine alone the weapon-lord Odin ever lives Gods had several titles, typically "the celebrated", "the highest", "king", or "shepherd", with the notion that deities had their own idiom and true names which might be kept secret from mortals in some circumstances.

Their immense power, which they could exercise at their pleasure, necessitated rituals, sacrifices and praise songs from worshipers to ensure they would in return bestow prosperity to the community. Linguists have been able to reconstruct the names of some deities in the Proto-Indo-European language PIE from many types of sources. Some of the proposed deity names are more readily accepted among scholars than others.

According to philologist Martin L. West , "the clearest cases are the cosmic and elemental deities: the Sky-god , his partner Earth , and his twin sons ; the Sun, the Sun Maiden, and the Dawn ; gods of storm , wind, water, fire; and terrestrial presences such as the Rivers, spring and forest nymphs, and a god of the wild who guards roads and herds".

It is unlikely however that he was in charge of the supervision of justice and righteousness, as it was the case for the Zeus or the Indo-Iranian Mithra — Varuna duo; but he was suited to serve at least as a witness to oaths and treaties.

In these three branches plus a fourth Italic , the reluctant dawn-goddess is chased or beaten from the scene for tarrying. Represented as young men and the steeds who pull the sun across the sky, the Divine Twins rode horses sometimes they were depicted as horses themselves and rescued men from mortal peril in battle or at sea. During the day, they crossed the sky in pursuit of their consort, the morning star.

A second descendant may be found in Dia, a mortal said to unite with Zeus in a Greek myth. The story leads ultimately to the birth of the Centaurs after the mating of Dia's husband Ixion with the phantom of Hera , the spouse of Zeus.

The reconstruction is however only attested in those two traditions and therefore not secured. James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams note however that "these functions are much too generic to support the supposition of a distinct PIE 'consort goddess' and many of the 'consorts' probably represent assimilations of earlier goddesses who may have had nothing to do with marriage.

Worunos may have personified the firmament, or dwelled in the night sky. In both Greek and Vedic poetry, Uranos and Varuna are portrayed as "wide-looking", bounding or seizing their victims, and having or being a heavenly "seat".

The substratum of Proto-Indo-European mythology is animistic. In Indo-European tradition, the storm is deified as a highly active, assertive, and sometimes aggressive element; the fire and water are deified as cosmic elements that are also necessary for the functioning of the household; [] the deified earth is associated with fertility and growth on the one hand, and with death and the underworld on the other.

It either meant "the Striker" or "the Lord of Oaks", [] [] and he was probably represented as holding a hammer or a similar weapon. This likely explains the strong association between the thunder-god and oaks in some traditions. He embodied the flames of the sun and the lightning, as well as the forest fire, the domestic hearth fire and the sacrificial altar, linking heaven and earth in a ritual dimension.

This fire deity is thought to have been worshiped by the Illyrians in antiquity, among whom he was the most prominent god of the pantheon during Roman times. Scholars generally agree that the cult of the hearth dates back to Proto-Indo-European times. Based on the similarity of motifs attested over a wide geographical extent, it is very likely that Proto-Indo-European beliefs featured some sorts of beautiful and sometimes dangerous water goddesses who seduced mortal men, akin to the Greek naiads , the nymphs of fresh waters.

They are of outstanding beauty, and Indra sends them to lure men. In Ossetic mythology , the waters are ruled by Donbettyr "Water-Peter" , who has daughters of extraordinary beauty and with golden hair.

In Armenian folklore , the Parik take the form of beautiful women who dance amid nature. Similar to the Baltic nymph-like Laumes, they have the habit of abducting children. The beautiful and long-haired Laumes also have sexual relations and short-lived marriages with men.

The Breton Korrigans are irresistible creatures with golden hair wooing mortal men and causing them to perish for love. The name literally means "Grandson [or Nephew ] of the Waters". Although such a god has been solidly reconstructed in Proto-Indo-Iranian religion , Mallory and Adams nonetheless still reject him as a Proto-Indo-European deity on linguistic grounds.

We find evidence for the deification of the wind in most Indo-European traditions. B yente , Lat. In , Adalbert Kuhn suggested that the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed in a set of helper deities, whom he reconstructed based on the Germanic elves and the Hindu ribhus. It is unlikely that the Indo-Europeans had no concept of such creatures, but we cannot define with any sharpness of outline what their conceptions were.

Although the name of the divinities are not cognates, a horse goddess portrayed as bearing twins and in connection with fertility and marriage has been proposed based on the Gaulish Epona , Irish Macha and Welsh Rhiannon , with other thematic echos in the Greek and Indic traditions. The Irish goddess Macha gave birth to twins, a mare and a boy, and the Welsh figure Rhiannon bore a child who was reared along with a horse.

Mallory and Adams also reject this reconstruction as having no basis, asserting that the "lexical correspondence is only just possible and with no evidence of a cognate sea god in Irish.

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The dominant religion of the modern Indian subcontinent, which makes use of Sanskrit in its texts and practices. Sanskrit is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, and has been used as a philosophical language in the religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. One of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial documentation exists, Sanskrit is believed to have been the general language of the greater Indian Subcontinent in ancient times. It is still used today in Hindu religious rituals, Buddhist hymns and chants, and Jain texts. Sanskrit traces its linguistic ancestry to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European languages, meaning that it can be traced historically back to the people who spoke Indo-Iranian, also called the Aryan languages, as well as the Indo-European languages, a family of several hundred related languages and dialects. Sanskrit manuscript on palm-leaf, in Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.

It was a link language in ancient and medieval South Asia, and upon transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia , East Asia and Central Asia in the early medieval era, it became a language of religion and high culture , and of the political elites in some of these regions. Sanskrit generally connotes several Old Indo-Aryan varieties. The hymns of the Rigveda are notably similar to the most archaic poems of the Iranian and Greek language families, the Gathas of old Avestan and Iliad of Homer. Sanskrit's status, function, and place in India's cultural heritage are recognized by its inclusion in the Constitution of India 's Eighth Schedule languages. Sound and oral transmission were highly valued qualities in ancient India, and its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. Sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself; the "mysterious magnum" of Hindu thought. The search for perfection in thought and the goal of liberation were among the dimensions of sacred sound, and the common thread that weaved all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit.

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English language , West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related to the Frisian , German , and Dutch in Belgium called Flemish languages. It is also an official language of India , the Philippines , Singapore , and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. English is the first choice of foreign language in most other countries of the world, and it is that status that has given it the position of a global lingua franca.

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Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and deities associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans , the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language. Although the mythological motifs are not directly attested — since Proto-Indo-European speakers lived in prehistoric societies — scholars of comparative mythology have reconstructed details from inherited similarities found among Indo-European languages , based on the assumption that parts of the Proto-Indo-Europeans' original belief systems survived in the daughter traditions. Some myths are also securely dated to Proto-Indo-European times, since they feature both linguistic and thematic evidence of an inherited motif: a story portraying a mythical figure associated with thunder and slaying a multi-headed serpent to release torrents of water that had previously been pent up; a creation myth involving two brothers, one of whom sacrifices the other in order to create the world; and probably the belief that the Otherworld was guarded by a watchdog and could only be reached by crossing a river. Various schools of thought exist regarding possible interpretations of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European mythology.


Indo-European Language and Culture - Benjamin W. Fortson nazarethsr.org - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File An Integrated Proto Indo European Concept (Overview) Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike.


The Indo-European or Indo-European languages form the most speaker-rich language family in the world today with around three billion native speakers. Their widespread distribution is the result of migrations over the millennia and, most recently, of European expansion since the 15th century. A single, prehistoric Indo-European original language is assumed as the common origin , the main features of which could be reconstructed by comparing the individual languages. The two common terms are brackets that are based on the pre-colonial geographical distribution of the language family. They are used according to the knowledge and tradition of the early 19th century, when nothing was known about Hittite and Tocharian.

Послышались гудки. Беккер разглядывал зал. Один гудок… два… три… Внезапно он увидел нечто, заставившее его бросить трубку. Беккер повернулся и еще раз оглядел больничную палату.

Проще было его игнорировать.

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