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Sources Of Primary And Secondary Data Pdf

sources of primary and secondary data pdf

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Published: 15.04.2021

Secondary Research- Definition, Methods and Examples.

Published on June 20, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on February 26, Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. A primary source gives you direct access to the subject of your research.

Secondary data refers to data that is collected by someone other than the primary user. Secondary data analysis can save time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data , can provide larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. However, secondary data analysis can be less useful in marketing research, as data may be outdated or inaccurate. Government departments and agencies routinely collect information when registering people or carrying out transactions, or for record keeping — usually when delivering a service. This information is called administrative data. A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Secondary research or desk research is a research method that involves using already existing data. Existing data is summarized and collated to increase the overall effectiveness of research. Secondary research includes research material published in research reports and similar documents. These documents can be made available by public libraries, websites, data obtained from already filled in surveys etc. Some government and non-government agencies also store data, that can be used for research purposes and can be retrieved from them.

Primary Sources of Data and Secondary Sources of Data

Primary sources provide a first-hand account of an event or time period and are considered to be authoritative. They represent original thinking, reports on discoveries or events, or they can share new information. Often these sources are created at the time the events occurred but they can also include sources that are created later. They are usually the first formal appearance of original research. Secondary sources involve analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation of primary sources.

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Metrics details. The data from individual observational studies included in meta-analyses of drug effects are collected either from ad hoc methods i. The use of secondary sources may be prone to measurement bias and confounding due to over-the-counter and out-of-pocket drug consumption, or non-adherence to treatment. In fact, it has been noted that failing to consider the origin of the data as a potential cause of heterogeneity may change the conclusions of a meta-analysis. We aimed to assess to what extent the origin of data is explored as a source of heterogeneity in meta-analyses of observational studies. We evaluated, when reported, the type of data source primary vs secondary used in the individual observational studies included in each meta-analysis, and the exposure- and outcome-related variables included in sensitivity, subgroup or meta-regression analyses. We found articles, 23 of which fulfilled our eligibility criteria.

sources of primary and secondary data pdf

On the process of collecting data, researcher is actively involved. Secondary data are provided by past research, journals, articles, and studies. These data can be gathered through several sources: government publications, books, journals, articles, websites, internal records, and other sources (Ajayi, ).


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In a time when data is becoming easily accessible to researchers all over the world, the practicality of utilizing secondary data for research is becoming more prevalent, same as its questionable authenticity when compared with primary data. These 2 types of data, when considered for research is a double-edged sword because it can equally make a research project as well as it can mar it. In a nutshell, primary data and secondary data both have their advantages and disadvantages.

Primary and secondary sources

Aside from consulting the primary origin or source, data can also be collected through a third party, a process common with secondary data. It takes advantage of the data collected from previous research, and uses it to carry out new research. Secondary data is one of the two main types of data, where the second type is the primary data. These 2 data types are very useful in research and statistics, but for the sake of this article, we will be restricting our scope to secondary data. We will study secondary data, its examples, sources and methods of analysis. Secondary data is the data that has already been collected through primary sources and made readily available for researchers to use for their own research.

 - Подумайте, - предложил.  - Раз у человека в паспорте был наш номер, то скорее всего он наш клиент. Поэтому я мог бы избавить вас от хлопот с полицией.

 Вы хотите отправить его домой. - Нет. Пусть остается.  - Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности.  - Чатрукьян уже, надеюсь, ушел. - Не знаю, я его не видела.


Data collection, primary vs. secondary, explains the ad- vantages and disadvantages of questions or to point the researcher to other sources of information.


Он задумал способствовать распространению алгоритма, который АНБ с легкостью взломает. - Полный и всеобщий доступ, - объяснял Стратмор.  - Цифровая крепость сразу же станет всеобщим стандартом шифрования.

2 Comments

  1. Dalmiro M.

    16.04.2021 at 15:27
    Reply

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  2. Anne E.

    16.04.2021 at 22:18
    Reply

    Primary sources of data collection have their advantages such as addressing specific research problems and applications in data management and storage.

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