File Name: social conflict economic development and extractive industry evidence from south america .zip
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Lima, A colleague begins a postgraduate seminar on extractive industries by presenting students, drawn from across Latin America, with a series of quotations on the relationships between extraction, development strategy, and society. The quotations are unlabeled, though the students are told that they come from Latin American presidents and vice presidents, representing political positions ranging from the self-consciously neoliberal to the ostensibly post-neoliberal. The task was to assign the quotations to these politically very different leaders.
How to cite this article: Himley M. Wells are drilled, shafts tunneled, mountainsides blasted-all with the aim of wresting from the earth those parts of the subsoil deemed valuable by human socio-economic systems. Moreover, these physical landscape modifications are just the beginning. Property rights, livelihood strategies, water flow, gender relations, air quality, class structures, land values, state revenues, and human health are among the other things typically altered or reconfigured by the growth of extractive industries. Given the scope of these oft-witnessed transformations, extractive activities are commonly viewed with unease as well as expectation-as risky transgressions of the order of things as well as singular opportunities to harness the transformative potential of extraction to spur development processes. How and under what conditions might extractive industries effectively stimulate development?
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To date, much of the social science literature dealing with the extractive industries has been dominated by debates over the so-called resource curse. According to its proponents, natural resources can have a series of negative economic and political effects which can trigger social conflict and civil war see Sachs and Warner, ; Collier and Hoeffler, ; Bebbington and Williams, At the same time, however, a growing literature also emphasizes the importance of institutional quality and historical as well as socio-economic processes to determine the effects of extraction see Wright and Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.
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Synopsis: The extraction of minerals, oil and gas has a long and ambiguous history in development processes — in North America, Europe, Latin America and Australasia. Extraction has yielded wealth, regional identities and in some cases capital for industrialization. In other cases its main heritages have been social conflict, environmental damage and underperforming national economies. As the extractive economy has entered another boom period over the last decade, not least in Latin America, the countries in which this boom is occurring are challenged to interpret this ambiguity. Will the extractive industry yield, for them, economic development, or will its main gifts be ones of conflict, degradation and unequal forms of growth. This book speaks directly to this question and to the different ways in which Latin American countries are responding to the challenge of extractive industry. The contributors are a mixture of geographers, economists, political scientists, development experts and anthropologists, who all draw on sustained field work in the region.
The resource curse , also known as the paradox of plenty or the poverty paradox , is the phenomenon of countries with an abundance of natural resources such as fossil fuels and certain minerals having less economic growth , less democracy , or worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. There are many theories and much academic debate about the reasons for, and exceptions to, these adverse outcomes. Most experts believe the resource curse is not universal or inevitable, but affects certain types of countries or regions under certain conditions. The idea that resources might be more of an economic curse than a blessing began to emerge in debates in the s and s about the economic problems of low and middle-income countries. The term resource curse was first used by Richard Auty in to describe how countries rich in mineral resources were unable to use that wealth to boost their economies and how, counter-intuitively, these countries had lower economic growth than countries without an abundance of natural resources.
На этот раз Стратмор позволил себе расхохотаться во весь голос. - Твой сценарий мне понятен. ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся, поэтому откройте двери и отпустите .
Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым.
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