File Name: factory stairways ladders and handrails file.zip
This section covers all stairways including standard, spiral, ship, and alternating tread-type stairs , except for articulated stairs stairs that change pitch due to change in height at the point of attachment such as those serving floating roof tanks, stairs on scaffolds, stairs designed into machines or equipment, and stairs on self-propelled motorized equipment. When paragraph b 8 of this section allows the use of spiral, ship, or alternating tread-type stairs, they are installed, used, and maintained in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Have a minimum width of 22 inches 56 cm between vertical barriers see Figure D-8 of this section.
This risk can be greatly reduced by ensuring that any change in level incorporates basic precautions to guard against accident and falls. Stairs and ramps should be constructed to be within limits recognised as offering safe and convenient passage and designed so that any person who is likely to use them can do so comfortably and safely, with the minimum amount of difficulty.
Design should also address the issue of appropriate guarding, where a level change is made, and seek to eliminate any possible trip hazards. The following terms are explained to provide clarity to their meaning in the Technical Handbooks.
Tapered tread means a stair tread in which the nosing is not parallel to the nosing of the tread or landing next above. Conversions - in the case of conversions , as specified in regulation 4, the building as converted shall meet the requirements of this standard in so far as is reasonably practicable , and in no case be worse than before the conversion regulation 12, schedule 6.
The geometry of a stair flight can have a significant effect on the ability of people to use a stair safely and conveniently and limits should be placed on the rise and going of a stair, and steepness of pitch.
To provide safe and convenient access, the rise, going, tread and pitch of a flight in a stair should be in accordance with the following table:. Stair geometry - stairs to or within a building. All rises in a flight should be of uniform height. In a straight flight, or in a part of a flight that is straight, measurement should be uniform along the centreline of the flight.
Where a flight consists partly of straight and partly of tapered treads, the going of the tapered treads should be uniform and should not be less than the going of the straight treads. The going measured at the narrow end of a tapered tread should be at least 50mm see diagram to clause 4. The aggregate of the going and twice the rise should be at least mm and not more than mm. For example, stairs provided with the minimum going of mm would result in rises of at least mm.
The most comfortable combination of rise and going varies between individuals but in general, a going in excess of the minimum, resulting in a figure in the upper end of the range in note 5 above, will increase both safety and amenity. The clear, or effective, width of a stair should allow users to move up and down unhindered and permit people to pass on a flight.
The effective width should be measured between handrails or, where there is no handrail present, between any walls or protective barriers. It should be clear of obstructions, as described in the diagram to clause 4. The effective width of a stair should be not less than 1. Effective widths of flights and landings. The effective width of the stair within shared residential accommodation may be mm where a handrail is fitted to both sides of the flight.
The act of climbing stairs can be tiring to many people. Whilst landings can provide a safe resting point, the flight itself is not intended to do so. The maximum number of rises between landings should therefore be limited. Generally, a flight should have not more than 16 rises. Below a minimum number of steps, it becomes difficult to signal a change of level, which can contribute significantly to a trip hazard.
Generally, a flight should have at least 3 rises. However people tend to take greater care at certain locations, such as at an external door, and a single step or 2 steps may be appropriate under certain circumstances. There may be less than 3 rises:. All stairs providing access to and within buildings should be designed to be accessible by most persons with reduced mobility. Open risers on a flight can be a hazard. When ascending a stair, people may be at risk of trapping the toes of shoes beneath projecting nosings, and of tripping as a result.
In addition, many may feel a sense of insecurity when looking through spaces present between treads. A stair should have contrasting nosings to assist in identifying the position of treads and risers should be profiled to minimise tripping as shown below. Open rises should not be used unless a stair is intended for descent only, such as in a dedicated escape stair on an escape route.
However a stair within shared residential accommodation may be constructed with open risers and without contrasting nosings as occupants will be more familiar with the stair through frequent use. Small children can climb or fall through gaps in stair treads and the size of such gaps should be limited to prevent this. In a flight with open rises, the treads should overlap by at least 15mm.
Any opening between adjacent treads in a flight should be small enough to prevent the passage of a mm sphere. Clear space is needed to the head and foot of any stair flight to allow people to move between a flight and an adjacent level surface safely. People may also wish to pause on stairs, particularly during ascent, and any intermediate landing should provide a temporary respite and be of a size to allow this whilst still permitting others to pass safely. A single landing may be common to 2 or more flights , and.
The minimum length of a stair landing, measured on the centreline of travel, should be either 1. On landings to external stair flights, where tactile paving is used, the minimum length of landing should be 1. A landing need not be provided to a flight of steps between the external door of a building and the ground where:. A sudden and unguarded change of level on an access route can present a hazard to a person with a visual impairment. Therefore, on external access routes, tactile paving should be used to alert people to the presence of a flight of steps.
It should be provided at the head and foot of any flight of external steps, forming a strip mm deep, positioned mm from the first step edge, as noted below. On any landing mutual to a flight of steps and a ramp, tactile paving should lie outwith the landing area of any ramp flight, to prevent possible confusion which might lead to injury. General information on use of tactile paving, including options on intermediate landings, is given in 'Guidance on the Use of Tactile Paving Surfaces'.
On that part of a flight consisting of tapered treads, the going of the tapered treads should be uniform and should not be less than the going of the straight treads. At the inner end of the tread, the going should be at least 50mm. Tapered treads on a stair should be constructed in accordance with BS Part 1: , Appendices B1 and B3, irrespective of material or whether it contains open rises. However guarding should be in accordance with the guidance in clause 4. In a flight less than 1m wide the going should be measured at the centre line of the flight as described in clause 4.
In a flight 1m wide or more the going should be measured at 2 points, mm from each end of the tread, as described in clause 4. Stairs formed from tapering treads, particularly where forming a spiral, can present greater difficulties in use for many people than straight flights. There should be an appropriate level of safety and amenity on such stairs, particularly where used as a primary means of access.
A flight consisting wholly of tapered treads, forming a helix or spiral, should be constructed to give safe passage. To achieve this, it should be constructed in accordance with the guidance in BS Part 2: , but account should be taken of the following guidance clauses:.
Surfaces with a gradient of 1 in 20 to not more than 1 in 12 are considered to be ramps and recommendations are made on such surfaces to ensure the safety and amenity of users. Gradients of more than 1 in 12 are considered too steep to negotiate safely and are not recommended. Steep gradients require both greater effort to ascend and more care when descending.
As a general principle, the steeper the gradient of a ramp, the shorter the flight should be. A pedestrian ramp should be constructed in accordance with the following table:.
Gradient, length and rise of a flight in a pedestrian ramp. The maximum flight length for a particular gradient can be interpolated as follows: 3m long for a gradient of 1 in 13, 4m long for a gradient of 1 in 14, and so on. The width of a ramp should relate to the intensity of use. For example, an unobstructed width of 1.
As a ramp flight will normally be enclosed between flanking handrails or guarding, it is important that this width still offers safe and convenient passage. The effective width of a ramp flight should be at least 1.
Effective width is measured between handrails, or where there are no handrails, the protective barrier or inside face of any wall or guarding kerb, and should be clear of any obstructions. A ramp which forms part of an escape route should have an effective width of not less than 1. Clear space is needed to the head and foot of any ramp flight to allow people to move between a flight and an adjacent level surface safely.
This should permit manoeuvring of a wheelchair without obstructing passage or the need to encroach into circulation routes or onto a ramp flight. The unobstructed length of a landing should be not less than 1. Where the entire length of a series of ramp flights is not visible from either the top or bottom landing, intermediate landings should have an effective width of not less than 1.
Handrails to stair and ramp flights will provide support and assist safe passage. As the full width of a flight may be used, either by people passing or by a person who favours one side, a handrail should generally be provided to both sides of a stair or ramp flight.
A handrail should be provided to both sides of any flight where there is a change of level of more than mm, or where the flight on a ramp is longer than 2m. The extension of a handrail at landings allows an individual to steady themselves before ascending or descending. For a person with impaired vision, the change in slope of the handrail and its return into a wall can also signal the start or finish of a flight.
A handrail on a stair or ramp flight should:. However the mm extension may be omitted where the handrail abuts a newel post, and.
A stair or ramp that is more than 2. This does not apply to a stair between an entrance door to a building and ground level, unless forming part of an escape route. A handrail should be fixed at a height of at least mm and not more than 1. A flight or landing on a stair or ramp should have clear headroom of at least 2.
Height should be measured vertically from the pitch line of the flight or from the surface of the landing. An industrial stair or fixed ladder serving an area in any building to which only limited access is provided should be constructed so as to offer safe passage.
This method of access is not for public use and would only be expected to be provided in places such as plant-rooms. A stair or ladder should be constructed in accordance with:.
Bookmark File PDF Eemua Publication Factory Stairways Ladders And Handrails. Eemua Publication Factory Stairways Ladders And Handrails.
It contains the following sections:. Section 1: Guidance on aspects of the geometry of stairs, special stairs, fixed ladders and handrails for and guarding of stairs. Section Guidance on protection against impact from and trapping by doors. Glazing which is installed in a location where there was none previously as part of the erection, extension or material alteration of a building other than an exempt building , and the replacement of a whole unit i.
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Сьюзан отчаянно пыталась встретиться взглядом со Стратмором. Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Хейл. Но Стратмор смотрел на молодого сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности. Коммандер спускался по лестнице, ни на мгновение не сводя с него глаз.
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По предложению министерства обороны президент подписал тайное распоряжение о создании новой, абсолютно безопасной правительственной сети, которая должна была заменить скомпрометировавший себя Интернет и стать средством связи разведывательных агентств США.
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