File Name: software assessments benchmarks and best practices .zip
A successful peer review strategy for code review requires balance between strictly documented processes and a non-threatening, collaborative environment. Highly regimented peer reviews can stifle productivity, yet lackadaisical processes are often ineffective. Managers are responsible for finding a middle ground where peer review can be efficient and effective while fostering open communication and knowledge-share between teammates. A SmartBear study of a Cisco Systems programming team revealed that developers should review no more than to lines of code LOC at a time. The brain can only effectively process so much information at a time; beyond LOC, the ability to find defects diminishes.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Management theory and practice have long established a link between effective performance measures and effective management Drucker, The effectiveness of any given performance measure depends on how it will be used.
For performance measures to have meaning and provide useful information, it is necessary to make comparisons. The comparisons may evaluate progress in achieving given goals or targets, assess trends in performance over time, or weigh the performance of one organization against another Poister, The Government Performance and Results Act of GPRA established the requirement for performance measures to assess how well departments and agencies are achieving their stated goals and objectives.
The emphasis of GPRA performance measures is on output and outcome measures at the program level. Performance measures used as a management tool need to be broadened to include input and process measures.
One approach is to use an array or scorecard composed of multiple measures. The Balanced Scorecard is one such approach that assesses an organization and its programs from four different perspectives: customer, employee, process, and finance. If the right objectives and measures are identified, successful implementation will likely occur. The objectives and process for construction and construction project management create a good environment for the effective use of benchmarking for measuring and improving performance.
Benchmarking is a core component of continuous improvement programs. As Gregory Watson noted in his Benchmarking Workbook , 12 of the 32 criteria for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award refer to benchmarking as a key component of quality assurance and process improvement Watson, The role of benchmarking in process improvement is similar to that of the Six Sigma 1 process improvement methodology.
These steps are also central to the benchmarking process defined in this chapter. Benchmarking is an integral part of the continuous improvement cycle shown in Figure 3. Measuring, comparing to competition, and identifying opportunities for improvements are the essence of benchmarking. Six Sigma refers to a body of statistical- and process-based e. Many definitions of benchmarking are available. CII, To be successful, benchmarking should be implemented as a structured, systematic process.
It will not be successful if applied in an ad hoc fashion on a random basis. In most cases benchmarking is best-practice-oriented and is part of a continuous improvement program that incorporates a feedback process.
Benchmarking requires an understanding of what is important to the organization sometimes called critical success factors and then measuring performance for these factors. The gap between actual performance and preferred achievement is typically analyzed to identify opportunities for improvement.
Root cause analysis usually follows to assess the cause of unsatisfactory performance, and a search for best practices may be used to help address performance problems. Figure 3. The roadmap was adapted from the step process introduced by Robert Camp at Xerox. Benchmarking can be internal or external. When benchmarking internally, organizations benchmark against their own projects. When benchmarking externally, organizations seek projects from other companies or perhaps, in the case of DOE, from separate program offices for comparative analysis.
External benchmarks are generally considered to provide the greater advantage; however, internal benchmarking can be useful where no external benchmarks are available. Internal benchmarks are often the starting point for quantitative process examination. Trends can be identified by examining these data over time, and the impact of performance-improving processes can be assessed.
External benchmarks provide the added advantage of comparing against competitors. Benchmarking can and should be used at various levels throughout the organization, but if project improvement is the goal, data will typically be entered at the project level.
Program- and department-level measures can be provided by roll-ups of the project-level data. Benchmarking can be applied during various phases of a project for different purposes. When applied early on, such as at project authorization, it can be used to identify characteristics that may be associated with potential future problems and to identify aspects of project management e.
When applied during project execution, it can serve as a project management tool to guide project decisions. Postproject benchmarking is usually used to assess performance of a project delivery system to provide for lessons learned and feedback that can be used to establish benchmarks for future comparisons. Most organizations tend to begin with postproject comparisons and later progress to the earlier uses as confidence in the benchmarking process builds.
Over time, when sufficient data are available, trends can be analyzed to provide insight into the performance of project management systems.
Since integrated project team IPT members will normally have moved on to new projects, trend analyses of project-level cost and schedule metrics would typically be used at program and department levels.
Benchmarking needs buy-in at various levels of an organization in order to be successful. Most often, benchmarking is driven from the top. Senior management commitment is critical if resources are to be made available for the process. While benchmarking may succeed with senior management support alone, it is far more likely to succeed if it has the support of middle management and the project team.
Furthermore, the project team is far more likely to support the benchmarking initiative if it is understood that the goal is system improvement and not individual or team performance appraisal. The IPT members should be confident that data submitted for benchmarking will not be used for performance appraisals if accurate data are to be obtained.
The validation of benchmarked data is a critical component of any benchmarking system. Some benchmarking services collect data through a survey instrument and then use an experienced analyst to review them. The project team is interviewed to clarify and resolve issues. A different approach to validation is to share responsibility between the project team and an outside organization.
An independent reviewer serves as an honest broker and validates the data by ensuring their completeness and accuracy. The reviewer should be a trained, independent professional with a good understanding of the data to be collected, the measures to be produced, and the project management process used.
A rigorous examination of all data is performed by the service provider as a final check. Whatever approach is used, a validation process assists in maintaining consistency across organizations. Benchmarking processes are not easy to implement, and to be successful an organization must overcome numerous barriers.
Some private-sector companies fear that they may lose their competitive advantage by sharing information, and others fear exposure of organizational weakness. Use of an identity-blind process, whereby data are posted without attribution, can mitigate these concerns. For some organizations, arrogance is a major obstacle. These organizations may believe they are the best, so why benchmark? As renowned management consultant W. Edwards Deming would probably ask superconfident organizations that lack performance data and comparison to other organizations: How do you know?
Watson, Other organizations are unaware of the value of benchmarking and believe that benchmarking systems do not adequately address their needs. Benchmarking agreements and training increase familiarity with the benchmarking process and can help to reduce these barriers. One of the greatest barriers to benchmarking is a lack of resources. Most organizations are leaner today than in the past, and dedicating the essential resources can be difficult.
For some organizations, project processes and computer systems are not sufficiently developed to easily support benchmarking CII, For these organizations the benchmarking process will require more manual intervention and consequently greater resources. As project processes become automated, this barrier should shrink. Lessons learned from past benchmarking efforts can be helpful for an organization embarking on a benchmarking initiative:.
Senior management buy-in and support are vital to success, but even with this support, generating enthusiasm is difficult McCabe, Benchmarking will be successful only if made an integral part of the project process. Commonly accepted, effective metrics for assessing project performance are necessary to assess the extent to which best practices are used. Input, process, output, and outcome performance measures are necessary, and it is possible to implement them.
Performance measures should be applied through a structured benchmarking process. Cost-effective, value-added benchmarking can be implemented through standardization of definitions and application of computer-based technologies. Camp, Robert C. Portland, Ore. Construction Industry Institute Data Report. Austin, Tex. Member Company Survey.
Drucker, Peter F. Managing in a Time of Great Change. New York, N. Kaplan, Robert S. The Balanced Scorecard. Boston, Mass. McCabe, Steven. Benchmarking in Construction. Oxford, U. Mikel, Harry, and Richard Schroeder. Poister, Theodore H.
Measuring Performance in Public and Nonprofit Organizations.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Kandt Published Computer Science. This paper identifies fundamental principles and practices essential to the successful performance of a configuration management system. Save to Library.
Human Resource best practices have been around for decades. They have served as guidelines for many HR professionals. But what do they entail, and why are they so important? In this article: 1.
Benchmarking is defined as the process of measuring products, services, and processes against those of organizations known to be leaders in one or more aspects of their operations. Benchmarking provides necessary insights to help you understand how your organization compares with similar organizations, even if they are in a different business or have a different group of customers. Benchmarking can also help organizations identify areas, systems, or processes for improvements—either incremental continuous improvements or dramatic business process re-engineering improvements. Incremental Quality Improvement vs Benchmarking Breakthroughs. Benchmarking has been classified into two distinct categories: technical and competitive. Technical benchmarking is performed by design staff to determine the capabilities of products or services, especially in comparison to the products or services of leading competitors. If you cannot obtain hard data, the design efforts may be insufficient, and products or services may be inadequate to be competitive.
Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us : paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub,and another formats. Search for any ebook online with simple actions. But if you want to get it to your device, you can download much of ebooks now. You can't find this ebook anywhere online. Browse the any books now and should you not have time and effort you just read, it is possible to download any ebooks on your smartphone and check later. You know that reading Software Assessments Benchmarks And Best Practices is helpful, because we can easily get too much info online from your reading materials.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Management theory and practice have long established a link between effective performance measures and effective management Drucker, The effectiveness of any given performance measure depends on how it will be used. For performance measures to have meaning and provide useful information, it is necessary to make comparisons. The comparisons may evaluate progress in achieving given goals or targets, assess trends in performance over time, or weigh the performance of one organization against another Poister,
Software Assessments, Benchmarks, and Best Practices [Jones, Capers] on nazarethsr.org *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Software Assessments.
Software process assessments are by now a prevalent tool for process improvement and contract risk assessment in the software industry. Given that scores are assigned to processes during an assessment, a process assessment can be considered a subjective measurement procedure. As with any subjective measurement procedure, the reliability of process assessments has important implications on the utility of assessment scores, and therefore the reliability of assessments can be taken as a criterion for evaluating an assessment's quality. The particular type of reliability of interest in this paper is interrater agreement. Thus far, empirical evaluations of the interrater agreement of assessments have used Cohen's Kappa coefficient. However, the applicability of these benchmarks to the software process assessment context is not obvious.
APQC is the world's foremost authority in benchmarking, best practices, process and performance improvement, and knowledge management. Resources and tools to help your organization develop and implement sustainable business management processes. Resources and tools to help you at every stage of KM strategy and implementation. Online and in-person training and customized consulting services from our process and knowledge management experts. APQC membership includes access to our ever-growing Resource Library, with more than research-based best practices, benchmarks and metrics, case studies, and other valuable APQC content.
Summary: Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Proven techniques for software engineering successThis in-depth volume examines software engineering topics that are not covered elsewhere: the question of why software engineering has developed more than 2, programming languages; problems with traditional definitions of software quality; and problems with common metrics, "lines of code," and "cost per defect" that violate standard economic assumptions. The book notes that a majority of "new" projects are actually replacements for legacy applications, illustrating that data mining for lost requirements should be a standard practice. Difficult social engineering issues are also covered, such as how to minimize harm from layoffs and downsizing.
Двухцветный встал и с презрением посмотрел на Беккера. - Чего вы от меня хотите. Беккер задумался: Я бы хотел, чтобы ты как следует вымыл голову, научился говорить по-человечески и нашел себе работу.
Как выяснилось, кто-то из криптографов сосканировал фотографию из порножурнала и приставил к телу головы модели голову Сьюзан.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *