File Name: methods and approaches in language teaching in brief .zip
They can deftly weave through the challenges of teaching like Jackie Chan.
Throughout the history of teaching languages a number of different teaching approaches and methodologies have been tried and tested with some being more popular and effective than others. The direct method of teaching English is also known as the Natural Method. Its main focus is oral skill and it is taught via repetitive drilling. Today popular forms of the Direct Method are Callan and Berlitz. Just like its name suggests, this method of teaching English is grammar heavy and relies a lot on translation.
They can deftly weave through the challenges of teaching like Jackie Chan. They have a blast with any random props that happen to be in sight , and come up with new ideas at the drop of a hat. Would you like to be the teacher students turn to when they really want to learn? Use them right and be the best teacher that you can be. Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere.
Click here to get a copy. The different teaching approaches in this post can be classified into four theoretical orientations: structural , cognitive , psychological and functional. Structural approaches believe that language can be reduced to a learnable set of building blocks. There are rules, known as grammar and syntax, that govern how to combine these basic elements.
These rules can be memorized to achieve a high level of proficiency in a language. The cognitive perspective in learning a language puts the learner smack in the center of everything. Cognitive approaches look to answer questions like: How can a language be effectively learned? Learning a language is a conscious, rational, information-processing event. Is the teacher supportive enough to the students?
Is the classroom dynamic facilitating or inhibiting the acquisition of the language? Many of the insights in this category are borrowed from counseling and social psychology. Anything that lies outside the ambit of passing on meaningful information is just unneeded complication.
These four approaches all aim to do the same thing: give students the tools they need to use the language with real native speakers as well as understand native speakers in conversations or in videos such as those from FluentU. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons. Keep in mind that each activity may not fall neatly into one category. It may blend two or more of these categories.
In fact, you might adopt one approach and add elements of unrelated categories to it! They overlap, support, complement and even contradict each other. They all do have their own merits and minuses.
This is the classic way of teaching language. It began as a method to teach Latin and Greek and was generalized to teach any second language. Grammar and vocabulary are memorized rote. Plenty of written examples and drills are given where grammar rules are elegantly observed:.
The approach has strong structural underpinnings and the emphasis is on the correct use of grammar, regardless of the substance or context. We have the Direct Approach. Oh, and by the way, only the target language is used in class. Listening and comprehension thus become central to this approach. There are no vocabulary lists to memorize, but there are a lot of words and phrases to listen for and become more familiar with. She may be a psychology doctoral candidate studying German in order to understand the experts in her field.
So you do away with pronunciation and dialogues. The little grammar that you teach must be oriented towards understanding a piece of reading. You need to teach elements like conjunctions, which nestles phrases and sentences together, and negation, which changes the meaning of a sentence by degrees.
In the Reading Approach, learning a language is employed as a means to a higher end. This approach has both structural and functional underpinnings. The approach, which blossomed in the 50s and 60s, is all about structural patterns. Proponents believe that a language can be reduced to a basic set of sounds. Combine them and you have spoken words.
Those words, when phonetically joined, become phrases and later become sentences. Unlike the Reading Approach, the Audiolingual Approach gives higher priority to the spoken form than the written form. Activities like role playing are dialogues are drilled into students until they get the pronunciations and rhythm right.
And because Audiolingualism borrows from the behaviorist school of psychology, languages are taught through a system of reinforcement.
Mistakes on the other hand, are quickly, but gently corrected. The end goal is the forming of linguistic speaking habits through correct repetitions.
What good would it do any of your students if they know all the different ways of conjugating a verb but fail to communicate a coherent message? Communication is essentially the rationale for language and the Communicative Approach seeks to develop those skills that enable students to meaningfully engage with each other. Interactive activities are the hallmark of this approach. As the teacher, your responsibility is to give the students as much opportunity to give and receive meaningful communication as possible.
For example, you can let students introduce themselves, share their hobbies using the target language. The difference between statements shared in a round of show and tell and those found in textbooks is that the former are much more meaningful to your students.
Authentic materials are used every so often. A poster touting a concert or a flyer about some huge sale at a mall can be fertile ground for learning. In the Communicative Approach, students experience the target language as experienced by native speakers. The Silent Way uses silence as a teaching tool. Learning the target language is therefore seen as a creative, problem-solving process—a engaging cognitive challenge.
You can also use props. Not listening to the same lecture, but interacting in the target language. The students decide what they want to talk about. The teacher, acting as facilitator, will give him the translation and ask him to utter it out loud. The class, listening to the teacher and student, are already learning from the interaction. The process is repeated until a whole conversation is saved in the recorder.
This conversation is then transcribed and mined for language lessons featuring grammar, vocabulary and subject-related content. In this approach, the students work as a community—learning together and negotiating the lessons. Your role as a teacher is to encourage them to open up, participate in the discussion and contribute to the whole process. The Functional-notional Approach recognizes language as purposeful communication.
That is, we talk because we need to communicate something. For example, when teaching very young kids, you might want to teach them language skills that would help them communicate with mommy and daddy, or with their friends. When dealing with business professionals, a different syllabus would be in order. You might want to teach them formal forms of the language, how to delegate tasks, how to vocally appreciate a job well done. For example, in a marketplace situation, you can teach functions like asking a question, expressing interest or negotiating a deal.
Notions involved could be about prices, quality or quantity. The Natural Approach takes its cues from how first language is naturally learned by children. That process is then simulated for teaching adults a second language. They have to observe, to read the situation, to guess the meanings of words, to make mistakes and self-correct, just like babies! Acquiring a language only requires an immersive process of repetition, correction and recall.
The Natural Approach believes that the more the students lose themselves in the activity, the better their handle on the language will be. Well, TPR is going back to those good old days. TPR believes that when your students see movement and when they themselves move, their brains create more neural connections that make for more efficient language acquisition. This is to teach your students basic language skills.
Another pillar of this approach is that learning a language should be stress free. Your class would be so fun that word will get around. You now have 10 roads to take. My advice is, take all of them, and have a blast while at it. If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to teach languages with real-world videos.
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Listed below are brief summaries of some of the more popular second language teaching methods of the last half century. In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation.
Communicative language teaching CLT , or the communicative approach , is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study. Language learners in environments utilizing CLT techniques, learn and practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of "authentic texts" those written in the target language for purposes other than language learning , and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class.
Central to this process was the emergence of the concept of methods of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching—the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning—is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods preoccupied teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt documents the history of changes in language teaching throughout history, up through the Direct Method in the 20th century.
За спиной у него послышался какой-то звук. Он замер, чувствуя мощный прилив адреналина. Неужели Стратмор каким-то образом проскользнул наверх.
Он все еще катился по инерции и вскоре исчез в темноте. Сьюзан нашла свои валявшиеся на ковре итальянские туфли, на мгновение оглянулась, увидела все еще корчившегося на полу Грега Хейла и бросилась бежать по усеянному стеклянным крошевом полу шифровалки. ГЛАВА 68 - Ну видишь, это совсем не трудно, - презрительно сказала Мидж, когда Бринкерхофф с видом побитой собаки протянул ей ключ от кабинета Фонтейна. - Я все сотру перед уходом, - пообещала .
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