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Define Hiv And Aids Pdf

define hiv and aids pdf

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After acute infection, HIV disease enters a chronic life-long state of infection, which is characterised by a complex interplay between the virus and the host. With a variable asymptomatic duration, the final outcome for most, if not all, of the patients is the development of major complications followed by death, in its natural course of progression. Without effective treatment, clinical morbidity and mortality associated with HIV is the biggest medical problem for infected patients.

I. THE BASICS OF HIV MEDICINE

HIV is a virus. AIDS is a definition. HIV stands for "human immunodeficiency virus. It is made up of a variety of specialized cells and proteins, such as antibodies. A person who has been infected with the virus is considered to be HIV positive.

A Comprehensive Guide to HIV and AIDS

HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex including anal and oral sex , contaminated blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child during pregnancy , delivery, or breastfeeding. Methods of prevention include safe sex , needle exchange programs , treating those who are infected , as well as both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. HIV made the jump from other primates to humans in west-central Africa in the early-to-mid 20th century. Owing to their nonspecific character, these symptoms are not often recognized as signs of HIV infection. Even cases that do get seen by a family doctor or a hospital are often misdiagnosed as one of the many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms. Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting with an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection.

COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest CDC public health information. HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with HIV, most commonly during unprotected sex sex without a condom or HIV medicine to prevent or treat HIV , or through sharing injection drug equipment. So, once you have HIV, you have it for life.

define hiv and aids pdf

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the leading infectious cause of adult death in the world. Untreated disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a case fatality rate that approaches %.


What Is the Difference Between HIV and AIDS?

Explaining HIV and AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight infection and disease. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. These drugs have reduced AIDS deaths in many developed nations.

You can also download materials to share or watch videos on basic information about HIV. The only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested. Some people have flu-like symptoms within 2 to 4 weeks after infection called acute HIV infection. These symptoms may last for a few days or several weeks.


ISBN: (print); (web pdf) “The workplace” as defined in the HIV and AIDS Recommendation, (No.


4. STAGING, CLASSIFICATION AND MONITORING OF HIV/AIDS

The human immunodeficiency viruses HIV are two species of Lentivirus a subgroup of retrovirus that infect humans. Over time, they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS , [1] [2] a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Research has shown for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples that HIV is untransmittable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus , [15] part of the family Retroviridae. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. Over time, as HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various types of conditions and cancers. At that point, the immune system is too weak to successfully respond against other diseases, infections, and conditions. Untreated, life expectancy with end stage AIDS is about 3 years. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-managed, and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV.

HIV is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases. Without treatment, the infection might progress to an advanced stage called AIDS. The life expectancy of a person with HIV is now approaching that of someone who tests negative for the virus, provided that the person takes medications called antiretroviral therapy on an ongoing basis. These are types of T cell — white blood cells that circulate, detecting infections throughout the body and faults and anomalies in other cells. HIV targets and infiltrates CD4 cells, using them to create more copies of the virus. This increases the risk and impact of opportunistic infections and some types of cancer. It is worth noting, however, that some people have HIV for long periods without experiencing any symptoms.

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers.

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