File Name: different types of vitamins and their deficiency diseases .zip
Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency , whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency.
For much of human history, diseases of nutrient deficiency were the norm, and in some parts of the world, they still persist. Even into the 20th century, conditions caused by a lack of certain vitamins or minerals were endemic to North America and Europe.
Here are a few of those maladies. The disease of pirates: the grey-death. Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C, whose chemical name, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin term for scurvy, scorbutus. Even though the disease was known since ancient times described by Hippocrates around BCE , it was not a scourge to those who were largely land-bound.
Even though its causes were unknown, many cultures realized that eating certain herbs could reverse the symptoms, and as long as there was access to fresh food, it was generally kept under control. Preserved meats and carbohydrates contained no vitamin C, and unlike most animals, the human body is not able to create vitamin C on its own. The early symptoms of scurvy include spongy gums, pain in the joints, and blood spots appearing under the skin.
Many of the early explorers lost great numbers of men to scurvy: Vasco de Gama lost out of men in , and in , Magellan lost out of A few deaths were attributable to other causes, but the vast majority were due to scurvy. These days, scurvy is an extremely rare condition, almost exclusively caused by someone eating a completely unvaried diet.
In most cases, high levels of oral supplementation of vitamin C are enough to reverse the condition in a matter of weeks, and death by scurvy is almost unheard of. This condition is brought on by a lack of vitamin D, which causes the body to be unable to absorb or deposit calcium. Less commonly, it can also be caused by a lack of calcium or phosphorus, but vitamin D deficiency is by far the most common cause. Unlike vitamin C, the human body is able to produce vitamin D, but only if it has the metabolic precursors available to it.
When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light such as from the sun , cholesterol in the skin reacts and forms cholecalciferol, which is then processed in the liver and kidneys to create the active form of vitamin D.
But in adults, it both takes significantly longer to develop and tends to cause tip-off signs that something is wrong before bone warping sets in, such as extreme pain in the bones, and unexplained muscle weakness. If left untreated, rickets also can cause an extremely curved back, stunted growth, and frequent fractures—all of which can lead to permanent and debilitating deformity.
This condition is largely confined to Asia, especially in countries where boiled rice is a staple. Although beriberi was known to exist in rice-eating countries several centuries back, its prevalence boomed with the introduction of steam-driven rice-polishing mills from Europe.
The superior taste of the milled white rice led many locals to abandon the local unpolished brown rice, and in doing so, abandon their primary source of thiamine. From the s to the turn of the 20th century, people whose plant consumption was limited to the polished white rice would often come down with weakness, pain, weight loss, difficulty walking, and emotional disturbances.
Beriberi became one of the leading causes of mortality in the region. In the s, a doctor named Christiaan Eijkman began researching the causes of this epidemic at a laboratory in the Dutch East Indies now Jakarta, Indonesia , and initially believed that the condition was caused by a bacterial infection.
The chickens that ate the white rice came down with beriberi-like symptoms, while the others stayed healthy. Eijkman also discovered that when the chickens fed white rice were subsequently fed brown rice, they recovered from their illness!
Later dietary testing on prisoners confirmed his results. Recently, beriberi was also seen in Haitian prisons when the prison system began buying imported polished rice from the United States, and stopped feeding their inmates the local brown rice.
What causes blistering of the skin in the sun, pale skin, a craving for raw meat, blood dripping from the mouth, aggression, and insanity? Pellagra is caused by a lack of vitamin B3 niacin. It was initially believed that either the corn itself, or some insect associated with corn, was causing pellagra. This belief was reinforced when much of France eliminated corn as a food staple and virtually eradicated the condition.
Between the era that corn was introduced to Europe the early 16th century and the late 19th century, pellagra was found almost everywhere that poor people subsisted on cornmeal and little else. The alkali solution freed up the niacin that was present in the grain, but previously inaccessible. Despite the extensive work of Dr. Today, pellagra is most common in the poorest regions of the world, especially places that rely upon food aid programs.
Some countries still ship unfortified cornmeal rather than corn masa nixtamalized corn or fortified cornmeal to developing countries or to their own impoverished populations. China, parts of Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea all have endemic pellagra among their lowest classes. The discovery of important vitamins and how to produce them has been so significant to human health that many of those who were integral to the discoveries have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine; more than 10 Nobel Prizes have been divided among almost 20 eminent scientists for the discovery or isolation of vitamins A, B1, B12, C, D, E, and K.
Over the second half of the 20th century, after the beginning of widespread supplementation to everyday food items, the incidences of the conditions covered here went down dramatically across much of the world. Of course, the minerals essential to the human body play similarly important roles in maintaining health.
However, humans have not historically had a widespread significant problem acquiring these nutrients, as most plants absorb many minerals from the soil. With the increased processing of our food throughout the 20th century, however, some of these minerals have been lost, and have had to be re-added to the average Western diet through supplementation.
In the rest of the world, displacement due to war, and unfortified food from aid programs, has left survivors with enough calories, but not enough nutrients. Supplementation of assistance food and local fortification of salt and flour is beginning to help give displaced people especially displaced children a new chance at life without these and other nutritional diseases. Even people with healthy diets benefit from the supplementation of vitamins and minerals in common foodstuffs, and adding the nutrients costs next to nothing.
BY Arallyn Primm. Scurvy The disease of pirates: the grey-death. Rickets This condition is brought on by a lack of vitamin D, which causes the body to be unable to absorb or deposit calcium. Beriberi This condition is largely confined to Asia, especially in countries where boiled rice is a staple. Pellagra What causes blistering of the skin in the sun, pale skin, a craving for raw meat, blood dripping from the mouth, aggression, and insanity? Health science. Subscribe to our Newsletter!
By definition, a nutrient is any substance that is absorbed and either provides you with energy or enables growth, repair or proper functioning of your body. There are seven main classes of nutrients that the body needs. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. It is important that everyone consumes these seven nutrients on a daily basis to help them build their bodies and maintain their health. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases. This list of nutrients, their sources, constituents and deficiency diseases will help you prepare for the Competetive Examination.
Vitamin A——— Night blindness. Vitamin B1———Beriberi. Vitamin B2——– Ariboflavinosis. Vitamin B3 ——–Pellagra. Vitamin B5 ——–Paresthesia. Vitamin B6 ——–Anemia. Vitamin B7 —— Dermatitis, enteritis. Vitamin B9 & Vitamin B12 —– Megaloblastic anemia.
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Vitamins are a group of chemically diverse organic compounds that an organism requires for normal metabolism. Apart from a few exceptions e.
By definition, a nutrient is any substance that is absorbed and either provides you with energy or enables growth, repair or proper functioning of your body. There are seven main classes of nutrients that the body needs. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. It is important that everyone consumes these seven nutrients on a daily basis to help them build their bodies and maintain their health. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases.
Vitamin deficiency anemia occurs when the body has fewer healthy red blood cells than is normal. Red blood cells help deliver oxygen to organs and tissues all over the body. The risk of developing vitamin deficiency anemia gets higher as you grow older. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for developing the condition because their bodies need more vitamins during pregnancy. A lack of any one of several vitamins — B12, folate also known as folic acid , or vitamin C — causes vitamin deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is a type of vitamin deficiency anemia that specifically involves a lack of vitamin B12 or folate. This difficulty may result from an underlying condition such as celiac disease.
Не стану вас затруднять, - ухмыльнулась она, - благодарю за предложение. Но все же кто. Беккер держался своей легенды: - Я из севильской полиции. Росио угрожающе приблизилась. - Я знаю всех полицейских в этом городе. Они мои лучшие клиенты.
Она не могла больше ждать. Пора. Она должна немедленно поговорить со Стратмором. Сьюзан осторожно приоткрыла дверь и посмотрела на глянцевую, почти зеркальную стену шифровалки. Узнать, следит ли за ней Хейл, было невозможно. Нужно быстро пройти в кабинет Стратмора, но, конечно, не чересчур быстро: Хейл не должен ничего заподозрить. Она уже была готова распахнуть дверь, как вдруг до нее донеслись какие-то звуки.
Он хорошо запомнил это обрюзгшее лицо. Человек, к которому он направил Росио. Странно, подумал он, что сегодня вечером уже второй человек интересуется этим немцем. - Мистер Густафсон? - не удержался от смешка Ролдан. - Ну .
Сделка всей его жизни только что распалась - за каких-то несколько минут. Стратмор продолжал спуск. Сделка отменяется.
Единственное сорвавшееся с них слово фактически не было произнесено. Оно напоминало беззвучный выдох-далекое чувственное воспоминание. - Капля Росы… Крик медсестры гнал его прочь. Капля Росы.
Клуб Колдун, - повторил он, напомнив таксисту место назначения. Водитель кивнул, с любопытством разглядывая пассажира в зеркало заднего вида. - Колдун, - пробурчал он себе под нос. - Ну и публика собирается там каждый вечер. ГЛАВА 53 Токуген Нуматака лежал на массажном столе в своем кабинете на верхнем этаже.
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