File Name: impact of textiles and clothing industry on environment .zip
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: July 06, Published: August 10, Citation: Toprak T, Anis P. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol. DOI: Download PDF. The public awareness and the growing perception of social cognizance about the environment have forced the textile industry to produce environmentally friendly products.
For this reason, nowadays many companies and organizations focus on the environmentally friendly way of production. This article emphasizes the environmental effects of textiles in detail and contributes to cleaner production and sustainability in the textile industry by initiating a discussion on the opportunities for change in textile processes in accordance with the laws.
Keywords, cleaner production, environmentally friendly, greener production, sustainability, textile. The extraordinary expansion of the global economy in recent years has also caused the explosion in consumption. While some of this growth in consumption is necessary for people to continue their lives, the rest is not. Like richness, consumption is also showing uneven distribution. Even though consumption of per person has risen in large areas of the world, these increases are not the same for everybody, and the differences between the increases are huge.
A person in North America is estimated to average about 20 times more than a person in China or India and about 65 times more than someone in Bangladesh. Today, the expenditures of million people living in industrially developed regions correspond to the consumption of more than one billion people living in underdeveloped regions of the world, just to meet fundamental requirements.
This case is problematic because it has two contradictory appearances and both of them put great pressure on the global environment. People who can not even use up sufficient to supply their fundamental requirements are compelled to make short-range verdicts that often have adverse long-dated effects on the environment to meet their needs. Examples of environmental problems caused by low consumption and poverty include cyanide fisheries which threatening the reef ecosystem of poor fishermen in Southeast Asia, farmers in Africa burning trees for rice bread, destroying forests and increasing poverty and deprivation by accelerating erosion and desertification.
Advanced production technologies, which are used to meet increased consumption demands, have also made production activities important to the global environment. The developing technology brought about the problems like pollution of the environment, air, and water, thinning of the ozone layer, a decrease of green areas.
In response, however, a public opinion has emerged, especially in developed countries, that is sensitive to these problems. New precautions have begun to be considered both to maintain industrialization and to protect the environment. It has been shown that cleaning up after the pollution is more costly than cleaning up before the pollution, and it is not possible to restore the degraded ecological balance after pollution. This led to the discussion of "how can we industrialize by protecting environmental values" instead of "development or environment is more important".
Along with the technological developments in recent years, developments in the textile sector as well as in many sectors have played a major role in the increase of environmental problems. The main environmental impact in the textile industry is manifested by the discharge of high amounts of chemical loads into the receiving environment.
Other important elements are high chemical and water use, energy consumption, air pollution, solid waste and odor formation. Environmental issues related to textile and garment sector; it starts with drugs that are used in the cultivation of natural fibers and the emissions in the production of synthetic fibers.
From this moment on, a series of processes are being carried out in which thousands of different chemicals, tons of water and considerable amount of energy are used to treat the fibers to reach the final textile product. In this review study, the environmental problems that textile has emerged have been examined and it has been explained that solutions for the problems can be made within the scope of sustainability and cleaner production.
The concept of cleaner production has also been discussed in detail and the relationship with sustainability has been put forward. Reactions to environmental problems began with local movements in the s, leaving the place to environmental organizations and parties in the s. The Quality Management System ISO , published by ISO in , forced industrialists to contemplate the environment by minimizing the raw materials usage, reducing the use of energy in processes or searching for clean energy sources, using non-harmful packaging materials and destroying them easily.
Therefore, cleaner production and sustainability have been offered as solutions to environmental problems. The concept of "cleaner production", which is often used in many countries, has evolved into the concept of "sustainable production" in the last 10 years in order to prevent possible future bigger catastrophes.
Sustainable production has become widespread with the cleaner production concept used by many organizations. Later, this definition was widened via joining the sustainable development orientation. For example, in , direct participation in the economic dimension of recognition by means of "using better management strategies, methods, and tools" was provided.
In summary, cleaner production; continuous implementation of an environmental protection strategy integrated with processes, products, and services. The first approach, which is used extensively to protect environmental values, is to eliminate pollution after it has been formed. This brings significant additional investment costs to the organization and high investment requirements are met with frustration by individuals or institutions in some areas and countries. Continuous increase in the amount of wastes generated in the process and the cost of the purification treatments, the continuous improvement of the receiving environment discharge standards and the environmental consciousness of public has forced the product and service sectors to find cheaper solutions.
As a result of this tendency, with simple measures, more effective use of raw materials that do not form beneficial products at the end of production and become waste, they have been seen that these losses are reduced, therefore, waste production can be reduced.
This has been followed by approaches such as increasing the productivity, replacing the raw materials with those less harmful to the environment and reducing water and energy needs in the production and usage processes. These have contributed to the acceleration of work on waste reduction, recycling, reuse, environmentally sensitive product and service design, etc. Administrative preventions: It is one of the simplest methods of cleaner production and it is not costly because there is no investment and it can be put into practice immediately after determining the possibilities.
Examples are the prevention of water, energy and other source losses such as keeping the water vents closed, optimizing chemical dosing, wasting equipment, etc. Moreover, focusing on the management and training of employees can also be done under this heading. Better process control: Within this heading; temperature, time, pressure, pH, process speed etc. This part requires more complex monitoring and management than administrative measures.
Material substitution: This means that the productivity of the production is increased by the use of a higher quality material without compromising quality and cost. In addition, material substitution also means replacing existing materials with some more environmentally friendly materials. For example, replacing a dyestuff containing a hazardous chemical with an environmentally friendly one means that the purification requirements and costs that would be caused by the hazardous chemical substance are either eliminating or falling down.
Equipment modification: Equipment modification is the development of present equipment to produce fewer waste and to ensure more efficient production processes. Examples include setting engine speeds, optimizing tank volumes, isolation of hot pipes, and so on.
New process technology: Because this method involves the use of more modern and efficient technologies, it requires a higher initial investment cost than other methods. However, with the developments of quality and savings the investment can be repaid in a very short-dated and with this application the company can more easily switch to more up-to-date and modern production processes.
Such applications also provide improvements in product and production quality. It involves collecting waste and reusing it in the same or different parts of the production. Non-preventable wastes can be recycled or vend as an offshoot.
This includes the creation of by-products, the sale of waste to consumers or other firms after collection of waste. For example; waste yeast, which is released in the brewery, can be reused as animal feed, fish production and food additive substance. Product modification : One of the basic headings of cleaner production to reduce the pollution caused by products is to change product characteristics.
Changing the product requires that the product and its requirements be reviewed again. Reducing the weight and the thickness of the products, designing that allows the product to be more easily recycled, changing the packaging are examples of this approach.
The main point of view in the change of packaging is that the protection of the product is guaranteed by the minimum amount of packaging material. The choice of which tools are used to determine the use of cleaner production opportunities according to their application areas depends on the problem in operation and the work to be done.
Single or multiple tools can be used based on nature of the problem. Environmental impact assessment EIA : This is a procedure, which provides that environmental effects are taken into account before making decisions. EIA includes identification of the positive and negative effects of the planned projects on the environment, determination of the measures to be taken to forestall and decrease these negative effects, and monitoring the implementation of the projects.
Environmental management system EMS : It aims at the management of activities that are linked to each other, have an environmental impact or have potency. Phases of this system; environmental policy, planning, implementation and operation, control and correction process, management inspection. It provides a mechanism to firms for thinking about the environment, deciding what to do and planning how to do it, actually applying it, and correcting deviations in the plan.
In other sense, it is the cluster of means and methods that have emerged to aid in environmental management for sustainable development. In summary, it examines the effects of a specific technology on human health and natural systems and resources. Chemical evaluation: In this context, the toxic effects and quantities of the chemical substances used in the production phase are analyzed to evaluate jeopardy on the health of human and the environment. It also includes methodologies for hazard and exposure assessment.
Environmental inspection: It is the most commonly used and most important application tool of cleaner production. Because it is a very effective tool, there are types developed for different purposes such as waste, energy and risk monitoring. Ecolabelling is implemented worldwide and is a voluntary method for certificating environmental performance. In this way, they can increase operating efficiencies, save money, reduce their environmental impact, share knowledge, encourage eco-discovery and longtime culture alter.
Carbon footprint: The carbon footprint that comes to mind with the climate change problem is described as the sum amount of greenhouse gasses which spread by an institution, person, activity or product. According to the definition of Wiedmann et al. CO2 equivalents or Global Warming Potential GWP was described as how many other greenhouse gasses have the same heat holding capacity in the atmosphere compared to the same amount of CO2 for a given period of time.
With this unit, the effect of all greenhouse gasses can be collected and expressed in a common unit. Risk assessment: The risks to be caused by a specific event on sanitary of human and the surrounding and the precautions to be taken about these risks are determined by this method. Policy instruments applied to encourage cleaner production may include legal legislation, voluntary standards, economic instruments taxes and penalties, state aid, financial mechanisms, etc.
The United Nations Environment Programme UNEP : It is an initiative that, one of the main global environmental authorities, as a defender of the environment, sets the environmental agenda globally and encourages consistent application of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Set up in , UNEP initiated work on the cleaner production in with the decision to "find environmentally sensitive technologies".
UNEP also publishes several publications showing the advantages of cleaner production. UNIDO supports industrial development, globalization and environmental sustainability for poverty reduction. World War on the completion of the function of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation OEEC , which operated between , in its place and on the basis of broader tasks.
The organization has 35 countries with democratic structures and market economies to work together to solve economic, social and management problems of globalization and to take advantage of this process opportunities. The OECD has achieved many successes in cleaner production over 20 years.
In , it started the Technology and Environment Program which lasted 3 years. Within this program, awareness of clean technologies was established, governments roles and responsibilities were defined, new analytical tools for cleaner production were identified, deficiencies in technology transfer and innovation were determined, cleaner production expert network was established and conferences were organized.
It is a global organization created by more than leading companies working together to speed up the passing to a more sustainable world. It has been involved in several cleaner production projects with UNEP.
The fashion industry is one of the major polluting industries in the world. The amount of new garments bought by Americans has tripled since the s. This exponential increase causes the need for more resources, and the need for a speedier process from which clothes are produced. One of the main contributors to the rapid production of pollution is the rapid production of clothes due to the rapid consumption of customers. Every year the world as a whole consumes more than 80 billion items of clothing. People are consuming more and they want it for cheaper prices.
Read article about Impact Of Textiles And Clothing Industry On Environment: .nazarethsr.org
Introduction to sustainability and the textile supply chain and its environmental impact 2. Ways of measuring the environmental impact of textile processing: an overview 3. Textile processing and greenhouse gas emissions: Methods for calculating the product carbon footprint of textile products 4. Calculating the water and energy footprints of textile products 5.
This underscores the importance of fabrics in our lives. But have you taken a few minutes to muse over what goes into producing different textiles and clothing that we use daily and how this affects our environment negatively? Experts say textile supply chains are among some of the most complex in all manufacturing sectors around the world. For starters, we have the fibre, which is either obtained from a plant, animal or crude oil.
The shift toward mass manufacturing of cheap clothing is resulting in pollution, more waste and other negative environmental impacts. According to the Ellen Macarthur Foundation, textile production produces 1.
Have you ever thought about what your clothes are made of? About who makes your clothes, or what happens after you throw them away? The truth about the fashion industry is actually pretty ugly. The fashion industry is being pointed out as one of the main sources of pollution in the World.
This impact is often felt in third countries, as most production takes place abroad. The production of raw materials, spinning them into fibres, weaving fabrics and dyeing require enormous amounts of water and chemicals, including pesticides for growing raw materials such as cotton. Consumer use also has a large environmental footprint due to the water, energy and chemicals used in washing, tumble drying and ironing, as well as to microplastics shed into the environment. Various ways to address these issues have been proposed, including developing new business models for clothing rental, designing products in a way that would make re-use and recycling easier circular fashion , convincing consumers to buy fewer clothes of better quality slow fashion , and generally steering consumer behaviour towards choosing more sustainable options.
On a Saturday afternoon, a group of teenage girls leaf through glossy fashion magazines at a New Jersey outlet mall. Far away in Tanzania, a young man proudly wears a T-shirt imprinted with the logo of an American basketball team while shopping at the local mitumba market for pants that will fit his slender figure. Although seemingly disparate, these two scenes are connected through the surprising life cycle of clothing. How does a T-shirt originally sold in a U. Globalization, consumerism, and recycling all converge to connect these scenes.
Конечно. Но я думаю, что одно с другим может быть связано самым непосредственным образом. Сьюзан отказывалась его понимать. - Это долгая история.
Вы получите оба экземпляра, - прозвучал голос. - Мой и мистера Танкадо.
Пожалуйста, сядь, Сьюзан. У нее был совершенно растерянный вид. - Сядь, - повторил коммандер, на этот раз тверже. - Выпустите меня! - Она испуганно смотрела на открытую дверь его кабинета.
Однако в дверях появился Стратмор. Бледная, жуткая в тусклом свете мониторов фигура застыла, грудь шефа тяжело вздымалась. - Ком… мандер! - вскрикнула она от неожиданности. - Хейл в Третьем узле. Он напал на .
Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование.
И все внимательно смотрели на .
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