File Name: talibanisation of pakistan from 9 11 to 26 11 and beyond .zip
The book portrays a dangerous and tragic picture of Pakistan, founded by a secular and moderate leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah, but a nation now on the verge of Talibanization. The author maintains that Pakistan might be a frontline state in the war against terror but jehadi groups continue to thrive there with the tacit support of sections of the military and intelligence establishments.
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Predominantly in the Middle East Rebel group with current territorial control in:. Al-Qaeda operates as a network of Islamic extremists and Salafist jihadists. The organization was founded by Emir Osama bin Laden, whose undisguised goal was to become a strong state under the banner of the caliphate. Bin Laden stated that a strong Islamic state is needed. Al-Qaeda has mounted attacks on non-military and military targets in various countries, including the United States embassy bombings , the September 11 attacks , and the Bali bombings.
The United States government responded to the September 11 attacks by launching the " War on Terror ", which sought to undermine al-Qaeda and its allies. The deaths of key leaders, including that of Osama bin Laden , have led al-Qaeda's operations to shift from top-down organization and planning of attacks, to the planning of attacks which are carried out by a loose network of associated groups and lone-wolf operators.
Al-Qaeda characteristically organises attacks which include suicide attacks and the simultaneous bombing of several targets. Al-Qaeda members believe that a Christian—Jewish alliance is conspiring to destroy Islam.
Al-Qaeda also opposes what it regards as man-made laws , and wants to replace them with a strict form of sharia law. Al-Qaeda has carried out many attacks on people whom it considers kafir.
Following the death of Osama bin Laden in , the group has been led by Egyptian Ayman al-Zawahiri. Al-Qaeda only indirectly controls its day-to-day operations. Al-Qaeda's philosophy calls for the centralization of decision making, while allowing for the decentralization of execution. At the same time, mid-level organizations were given autonomy, but they had to consult with top management before large-scale attacks and assassinations.
Top management included the shura council as well as committees on military operations, finance, and information sharing. As a result, the leadership has become decentralized, and the organization has become regionalized into several al-Qaeda groups.
Many terrorism experts do not believe that the global jihadist movement is driven at every level by al-Qaeda's leadership. However, bin Laden held considerable ideological sway over some Muslim extremists before his death. Experts argue that al-Qaeda has fragmented into a number of disparate regional movements, and that these groups bear little connection with one another.
This view mirrors the account given by Osama bin Laden in his October interview with Tayseer Allouni :. So the situation isn't like the West portrays it, that there is an 'organization' with a specific name such as 'al-Qa'idah' and so on. That particular name is very old. It was born without any intention from us. Brother Abu Ubaida So this place was called 'The Base' ['Al-Qa'idah'], as in a training base, so this name grew and became.
We aren't separated from this nation. We are the children of a nation, and we are an inseparable part of it, and from those public demonstrations which spread from the far east, from the Philippines to Indonesia, to Malaysia, to India, to Pakistan, reaching Mauritania Bruce Hoffman , however, sees al-Qaeda as a cohesive network that is strongly led from the Pakistani tribal areas.
Osama bin Laden served as the emir of al-Qaeda from the organization's founding in until his assassination by US forces on May 1, Bin Laden was advised by a Shura Council , which consists of senior al-Qaeda members. Ayman al-Zawahiri had been al-Qaeda's deputy emir and assumed the role of emir following bin Laden's death.
Al-Zawahiri replaced Saif al-Adel , who had served as interim commander. On June 5, , Pakistani intelligence officials announced that al-Rahman's alleged successor as second in command, Abu Yahya al-Libi , had been killed in Pakistan. Nasir al-Wuhayshi was alleged to have become al-Qaeda's overall second in command and general manager in Al-Qaeda's network was built from scratch as a conspiratorial network which drew upon the leadership of a number of regional nodes.
Osama bin Laden and his deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri, were the leaders who were considered the operational commanders of the organization.
Several operational groups exist, which consult with the leadership in situations where attacks are in preparation.
Al-Qaeda is a way of working Al-Bahri described al-Qaeda's formal administrative structure and vast arsenal. Curtis contended the name "al-Qaeda" was first brought to the attention of the public in the trial of bin Laden and the four men accused of the US embassy bombings in East Africa.
Curtis wrote:. The reality was that bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri had become the focus of a loose association of disillusioned Islamist militants who were attracted by the new strategy. But there was no organization. These were militants who mostly planned their own operations and looked to bin Laden for funding and assistance.
He was not their commander. There is also no evidence that bin Laden used the term "al-Qaeda" to refer to the name of a group until after September 11 attacks, when he realized that this was the term the Americans had given it. During the trial, the US Department of Justice needed to show that bin Laden was the leader of a criminal organization in order to charge him in absentia under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.
The name of the organization and details of its structure were provided in the testimony of Jamal al-Fadl , who said he was a founding member of the group and a former employee of bin Laden. There were selective portions of al-Fadl's testimony that I believe was false, to help support the picture that he helped the Americans join together. I think he lied in a number of specific testimony about a unified image of what this organization was. It made al-Qaeda the new Mafia or the new Communists.
It made them identifiable as a group and therefore made it easier to prosecute any person associated with al-Qaeda for any acts or statements made by bin Laden. The number of individuals in the group who have undergone proper military training, and are capable of commanding insurgent forces, is largely unknown. Documents captured in the raid on bin Laden's compound in show that the core al-Qaeda membership in was According to the BBC documentary The Power of Nightmares , al-Qaeda was so weakly linked together that it was hard to say it existed apart from bin Laden and a small clique of close associates.
The lack of any significant numbers of convicted al-Qaeda members, despite a large number of arrests on terrorism charges, was cited by the documentary as a reason to doubt whether a widespread entity that met the description of al-Qaeda existed.
They are mainly hunted by the American and Israeli secret services. He was involved in the assassination attempt on the U. According to author Robert Cassidy, al-Qaeda maintains two separate forces which are deployed alongside insurgents in Iraq and Pakistan.
The first, numbering in the tens of thousands, was "organized, trained, and equipped as insurgent combat forces" in the Soviet—Afghan war. Many of these fighters went on to fight in Bosnia and Somalia for global jihad. Another group, which numbered 10, in , live in the West and have received rudimentary combat training.
Other analysts have described al-Qaeda's rank and file as being "predominantly Arab" in its first years of operation, but that the organization also includes "other peoples" as of [update]. The optimistic voices were already saying that it was over for al- Qaeda.
Seven years later, Ayman al-Zawahiri became arguably the number one leader in the organization, implementing his strategy with systematic consistency. Tens of thousands loyal to al-Qaeda and related organizations were able to challenge local and regional stability and ruthlessly attack their enemies in the Middle East, Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and Russia alike. The number of al-Qaeda militants was set at 20, in Syria alone, and they had 4, members in Yemen and about 7, in Somalia.
The war was not over. In the s, financing for al-Qaeda came partly from the personal wealth of Osama bin Laden. Among the first pieces of evidence regarding Saudi Arabia's support for al-Qaeda was the so-called " Golden Chain ", a list of early al-Qaeda funders seized during a raid in Sarajevo by Bosnian police. Batterjee was designated as a terror financier by the US Department of the Treasury in , and Julaidan is recognized as one of al-Qaeda's founders.
Documents seized during the Bosnia raid showed that al-Qaeda widely exploited charities to channel financial and material support to its operatives across the globe. Several Qatari citizens have been accused of funding al-Qaeda. Nuaimi was also accused of investing funds in the charity directed by Humayqani to ultimately fund AQAP. Subayi's name was added to the UN Security Council 's Sanctions List in on charges of providing financial and material support to al-Qaeda senior leadership.
Al-Qaeda defector al-Fadl, who was a former member of Qatar Charity, testified in court that Abdullah Mohammed Yusef, who served as Qatar Charity's director, was affiliated to al-Qaeda and simultaneously to the National Islamic Front , a political group that gave al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden harbor in Sudan in the early s.
Legal proceedings from the trial United States vs. Enaam M. Arnaout revealed that Qatar Charity was cited by Bin Laden in as one of the charities used to channel financial support to al-Qaeda operatives overseas.
This accusation was publicly denied by Hamad bin Nasser al-Thani. The funding was primarily channeled through kidnapping for ransom.
Al-Nusra acknowledged a Qatar-sponsored campaign "as one of the preferred conduits for donations intended for the group". In the disagreement over whether Al-Qaeda's objectives are religious or political, Mark Sedgwick describes Al-Qaeda's strategy as political in the immediate term but with ultimate aims that are religious.
Atwan noted that, while the plan is unrealistic, "it is sobering to consider that this virtually describes the downfall of the Soviet Union. According to Fouad Hussein , a Jordanian journalist and author who has spent time in prison with Al-Zarqawi, Al Qaeda's strategy consists of seven phases and is similar to the plan described in Al Qaeda's Strategy to the year These phases include: .
According to Charles Lister of the Middle East Institute and Katherine Zimmerman of the American Enterprise Institute , the new model of al-Qaeda is to "socialize communities" and build a broad territorial base of operations with the support of local communities, also gaining income independent of the funding of sheiks.
The initial al- is the Arabic definite article "the", hence "the base". Al-Qaeda's name can also be transliterated as al-Qaida , al-Qa'ida , or el-Qaida.
Bin Laden explained the origin of the term in a videotaped interview with Al Jazeera journalist Tayseer Alouni in October The name 'al-Qaeda' was established a long time ago by mere chance. The late Abu Ebeida El-Banashiri established the training camps for our mujahedeen against Russia's terrorism. We used to call the training camp al-Qaeda. The name stayed.
It has been argued that two documents seized from the Sarajevo office of the Benevolence International Foundation prove that the name was not simply adopted by the mujahideen movement and that a group called al-Qaeda was established in August Both of these documents contain minutes of meetings held to establish a new military group, and contain the term "al-Qaeda".
Former British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook wrote that the word al-Qaeda should be translated as "the database", because it originally referred to the computer file of the thousands of mujahideen militants who were recruited and trained with CIA help to defeat the Russians. According to Diaa Rashwan , this was "apparently as a result of the merger of the overseas branch of Egypt's al-Jihad , which was led by Ayman al-Zawahiri , with the groups Bin Laden brought under his control after his return to Afghanistan in the mids.
Predominantly in the Middle East Rebel group with current territorial control in:. Al-Qaeda operates as a network of Islamic extremists and Salafist jihadists. The organization was founded by Emir Osama bin Laden, whose undisguised goal was to become a strong state under the banner of the caliphate. Bin Laden stated that a strong Islamic state is needed. Al-Qaeda has mounted attacks on non-military and military targets in various countries, including the United States embassy bombings , the September 11 attacks , and the Bali bombings. The United States government responded to the September 11 attacks by launching the " War on Terror ", which sought to undermine al-Qaeda and its allies.
Gendered Perceptions of Terrorism/Talibanization in Pakistan terrorism declared after the 9/11 terrorist attack on World Trade Center and the does not allow people to think beyond the false dichotomy of War as Theirs/Ours. (26%) who objected to Taliban‟s imposition of purdah (veil) on women.
This online resource library was last updated in February and is archived. There are listings here by categories of many hundreds of articles and studies on terrorism, counter-terrorism and homeland security. For years to come this site should continues to be one of the very best resources for those interested in these topics. Some small percentage of the links on this site will go bad each year.
Ошибаешься, - возразила. - Я только что говорила с Джаббой. Он сказал, что в прошлом году сам установил переключатель.
Испанские власти обещали придержать информацию - столько, сколько смогут. Мы узнали об этом лишь благодаря оперативности КОМИНТа.
Последние слова записки стали для нее сильнейшим ударом. И в первую очередь я сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере. Простите. Я был ослеплен своими амбициями. Стоя над Хейлом и стараясь унять дрожь, Сьюзан услышала приближающиеся шаги и медленно обернулась. В проломе стены возникла фигура Стратмора.
Светлый силуэт двигался по центральному проходу среди моря черных одежд. Он не должен знать, что я. - Халохот улыбнулся. - Может считать себя покойником. И он задвигал крошечными металлическими контактами на кончиках пальцев, стремясь как можно быстрее сообщить американским заказчикам хорошую новость. Скоро, подумал он, совсем. Как хищник, идущий по следам жертвы, Халохот отступил в заднюю часть собора, а оттуда пошел на сближение - прямо по центральному проходу.
Острая боль пронзила вес его тело, когда он приземлился на бок, но мгновение спустя он уже был на ногах и, скрываемый занавешенным входом, сбежал вниз по деревянным ступенькам. Превозмогая боль, он бежал через гардеробную. У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги. Беккер толкнул двойную дверь и оказался в некотором подобии кабинета. Там было темно, но он разглядел дорогие восточные ковры и полированное красное дерево. На противоположной стене висело распятие в натуральную величину. Беккер остановился.
Его сердце переполняла благодарность. Он дышал. Он остался в живых. Это было настоящее чудо. Священник готовился начать молитву.
В следующем семестре я возвращаюсь в аудиторию. Сьюзан с облегчением вздохнула: - Туда, где твое подлинное призвание. Дэвид улыбнулся: - Да. Наверное, Испания напомнила мне о том, что по-настоящему важно. - Помогать вскрывать шифры? - Она чмокнула его в щеку. - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью.
Беккер повернулся и еще раз оглядел больничную палату. В ней царила полная тишина. Прямо перед ним, откинувшись на груду старых подушек, лежал пожилой человек с ярко-белой гипсовой повязкой на правом запястье. ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты.
Зюсс. - Он пожал плечами. - Ладно, - нахмурилась Сьюзан.
Росио через силу улыбнулась и подошла к постели. Но, посмотрев на распростертую на простынях громадную тушу, почувствовала облегчение. То, что она увидела пониже его живота, оказалось совсем крошечным. Немец схватил ее и нетерпеливо стянул с нее рубашку. Его толстые пальцы принялись методично, сантиметр за сантиметром, ощупывать ее тело.
Самый великий панк со времен Злого Сида. Ровно год назад он разбил здесь себе голову. Сегодня годовщина.
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