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Breakthrough Strategic It And Process Planning Pdf

breakthrough strategic it and process planning pdf

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This book is the first publication that combines the principles of business process management with strategic IT planning, the result being a groundbreaking work on strategic IT and process planning. While Breakthrough Strategic IT and ProcessMoreThis book is the first publication that combines the principles of business process management with strategic IT planning, the result being a groundbreaking work on strategic IT and process planning.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. These goals were developed through a strategic planning process that involved a number of sources of information.

Strategic Planning in Diversified Companies

Management may draw up several alternative strategic scenarios and appraise them […]. Management may draw up several alternative strategic scenarios and appraise them against the long-term objectives of the organization. To begin implementing the selected strategy or continue a revalidated one , management fleshes it out in terms of the actions to be taken in the near future. In smaller companies, strategic planning is a less formal, almost continuous process. The president and his handful of managers get together frequently to resolve strategic issues and outline their next steps.

They need no elaborate, formalized planning system. Even in relatively large but undiversified corporations, the functional structure permits executives to evaluate strategic alternatives and their action implications on an ad hoc basis. The number of key executives involved in such decisions is usually small, and they are located close enough for frequent, casual get-togethers.

Large, diversified corporations, however, offer a different setting for planning. Because many managers must be involved in decisions requiring coordinated action, informal planning is almost impossible. Our focus in this article is on formal planning processes in such complex organizations. However, the thought processes in undertaking planning as described in the opening paragraph are essentially the same whether the organization is large or small. Therefore, even executives whose corporate situation permits informal planning may find that our delineation of the process helps them clarify their thinking.

To this end, formalizing the steps in the process requires an explanation of the purpose of each step. Every corporate executive uses the words strategy and planning when he talks about the most important parts of his job. The president, obviously, is concerned about strategy; strategic planning is the essence of his job. A division general manager typically thinks of himself as the president of his own enterprise, responsible for its strategy and for the strategic planning needed to keep it vibrant and growing.

These quite appropriate uses of strategy and planning have caused considerable confusion about long-range planning. Admittedly, although we think our definitions of strategy and planning are useful, others give different but reasonable meanings to these words.

The process of strategy formulation can be thought of as taking place at the three organizational levels indicated in Exhibit I: headquarters corporate strategy , division business strategy , and department functional strategy. The planning processes leading to the formulation of these strategies can be labeled in parallel fashion as corporate planning, business planning, and functional planning. We have to define these notations briefly before constructing the framework of the planning process:.

It is worth differentiating between objectives and goals, since these terms are used separately here. Objectives are general statements describing the size, scope, and style of the enterprise in the long term. They embody the values and aspirations of the managers, based on their assessment of the environment and of the capabilities and health of the corporation.

Goals are more specific statements of the achievements targeted for certain deadlines. At the corporate level these statements are likely to include such aspects as sales, profits, and EPS targets. Annual budgets constitute goals at all levels in the organization.

Corporate planning addresses matters relevant to the range of activities and evaluates proposed changes in one business in terms of its effects on the composition of the entire portfolio. But the distinction remains valid and useful. An important point to note about the planning process is that it requires formal interaction among the managers at different times.

The more formal aspects—business planning, functional planning, and budgeting—are a way of organizing the interaction among managers at different levels in the hierarchy; one way of conceptualizing the planning process is as a series of meetings where executives are trying to arrive at decisions about actions to be taken. A detailed answer to that question is best developed by breaking it into a series of more specific questions dealt with in several meetings.

These questions include: What are the objectives and goals of our company? What sort of environment can we expect to operate in? What businesses are we in? What alternative strategies could we pursue in those businesses? What other businesses should we enter? Should we make entry through an acquisition or through our research? What is the best combination of existing and new businesses to achieve corporate goals?

What programs should the divisions undertake? The series of agreements among individuals in the corporate hierarchy begin on a very broad level and then are framed in progressively more detailed terms. The options are numerous in the early stages of this ordering process but narrow gradually to the final choice: a set of specific goals budgets for each responsibility center in the corporation.

Initially, only a small group of corporate executives is involved in the process; later, more and more managers at lower levels become involved. The process eventually engages all the managers who must be committed to making the strategy work. The company was divisionalized, but it had decentralized very little initiative for examining strategic options. Top management, increasingly uneasy over its ability to resolve all the strategic issues implicit in the budget, decided to ask the divisions to prepare formal five-year plans for its approval before drawing up the final corporate budget.

The company moved from a one-cycle planning system to a two-cycle system, as shown in Exhibit III. Exhibit III Examples of one-, two-, and three-cycle planning processes. When top management reviewed the first set of five-year plans—a pound packet of neat notebooks—it decided the results were unacceptable.

It made suggestions to the divisions and requested a new set. This process was repeated no fewer than five times during the summer and early fall before all sides reached agreement and the budgeting could proceed. After this experience corporate management agreed that the procedure needed much improvement. So in the following year the company installed a three-cycle system. The first step required no comprehensive financial projections; instead, each division manager was asked to identify three or four strategic issues for presentation and discussion at headquarters.

Agreement on those issues set the stage for orderly functional planning and budgeting, which had been so cumbersome before. An important point to note about Exhibit II is its demarcation vertically, by cycles, and also horizontally, by activities at the three managerial levels.

The degree of involvement at these levels is different in each planning cycle. In the first cycle, corporate executives and division managers are primarily involved. In both that cycle and the budgeting cycle, they have the primary responsibility for developing detailed programs and budgets. The division manager and his staff are involved more or less actively in these two cycles, while top management limits itself to a review of division proposals.

Exhibit II, of course, makes no pretense of depicting the planning process as it is universally practiced; it is only illustrative. Nor is the process as neat and orderly as it appears here.

Moreover, while managers plan, the world keeps turning; so during a cycle events may oblige them to hold many meetings involving two levels. The first cycle of a formal planning process serves a dual purpose: 1 to develop a tentative set of agreements between corporate management and the division managers about overall strategy and goals, and thereby 2 to provide focus for the more detailed planning in the next cycle.

The process of reaching these initial agreements requires three discrete activities: establishing corporate objectives, drawing up division charters, and setting corporate goals. The ensuing discussion centers on these activities in a hypothetical but representative corporation whose fiscal year corresponds with the calendar year.

Naturally, its scope and the degree of detail provided vary greatly from one company to another. The preparation of such a statement gives division managers guidance as they begin strategic planning for their businesses.

So as a minimum the statement must include the intended company policies for allocating resources among the divisions. Therefore, the delineation of an explicit statement of corporate strategy is often deferred until the final step in the first cycle. In general, the more diverse the corporation, the less feasible it is to develop an explicit, cohesive strategy for its businesses and, therefore, the more desirable it is to make the resource allocation policies explicit at an early stage.

On the other hand, less diversified companies frequently delay preparing a strategy statement until the division heads have developed strategic proposals for their own businesses. Many large corporations are divisionalized, but not so many are highly diversified. The more common practice is to delay the definition or redefinition of corporate strategy until it can be stated in fairly explicit terms. Giving the initiative to the division manager at this step challenges him to think strategically about the scope of his activities and then propose a charter broad enough to permit him to contribute significantly to achieving corporate objectives.

Formalizing this step in the planning process is an important device by which corporate management widens the horizons of division heads. An explicit charter also serves two secondary purposes: 1 it increases the likelihood of clear agreement between the top executives and the division manager about the scope of his activities, and 2 it reduces the risk of redundant efforts or competition between divisions.

Obviously, the decision based on this analysis is crucial because the long-term performance of any division is a function of the strategy it adopts, and the performance of the company as a whole is likewise a function of the strategies of its particular businesses.

Although the initiative for identifying and analyzing strategic options lies with the division manager, guidelines that headquarters gives him for presentation of his proposals affect the way he pursues the task. Increasingly common is a request by corporate management that when he proposes a strategy and specifies goals, at the same time he also present a statement of the alternative strategies which he has evaluated and rejected.

The recommendations may also include a general statement of the action programs that would be developed to implement the strategy developed in more detail in the second cycle and a crude estimate of the resources that would be required.

Detailed financial data are usually not included at this step because such information is not necessary to evaluate the strategy and because the effort of preparing it may go to waste if the recommendations are modified. In the ensuing discussions, which extend over several meetings in late spring, corporate management and each division chief work toward reaching an agreement about the appropriate division strategy and goals.

By the middle of June top management has prepared an explicit statement of corporate strategy and goals. In some companies this document is, in effect, a set of decisions on how resources are to be allocated among the divisions, as well as a forecast of the results expected from each.

In most cases, however, the statement is not intended to constitute a final resource allocation decision; rather, it is designed to provide feedback to the division managers about the corporate implications of the agreed-on business strategies.

The presentation and discussion of corporate strategy and goals are also commonly used as a device to initiate the second cycle of the planning process. The sum of the recommended division goals is likely to be inadequate to achieve the goals envisioned by headquarters for the entire organization.

It can improve division performance by pressing, during the review of division recommendations, for more aggressive strategies and more ambitious goals. It can divert company resources into more promising businesses. This move may give rise to an acquisition program. Momentum is a factor in the continued success of a diversified corporation—as with a rocket headed for the moon—and a wise chief executive does not dissipate it needlessly.

Occasionally—perhaps inevitably—a major corporate shift is necessary, affecting one of its businesses. Care must be taken to isolate the effect on the remaining businesses. In late spring a couple of years ago, for example, top management of a major diversified corporation went through its usual review of division strategic plans. But the eventual profits will be enormous. With minor modifications, top management approved the proposal. Three months later the company abruptly announced that the business would be discontinued and the investment written off.

Continuous Improvement

Management may draw up several alternative strategic scenarios and appraise them […]. Management may draw up several alternative strategic scenarios and appraise them against the long-term objectives of the organization. To begin implementing the selected strategy or continue a revalidated one , management fleshes it out in terms of the actions to be taken in the near future. In smaller companies, strategic planning is a less formal, almost continuous process. The president and his handful of managers get together frequently to resolve strategic issues and outline their next steps.

I highly recommend this book to marketing and brand managers to help them create really pointed and impactful marketing plans. This book lays out a clear path to creating marketing plans that will get supported, and more importantly, drive results. He knows why most plans fails and what needs to be done to make them useful: set measurable goals, choose a strategy and support it, develop key tactics, and keep it short. Breakthrough Marketing Plans is a wonderfully useful book that will change the way marketers and marketing students operate. Read it: it will make you a better marketer! A great guide for anyone who strives to have clarity and impact from their marketing strategies - from the CEO to an entry level marketer.

Quality Glossary Definition: Continuous improvement. Continuous improvement, sometimes called continual improvement, is the ongoing improvement of products, services or processes through incremental and breakthrough improvements. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once. Among the most widely used tools for the continuous improvement model is a four-step quality assurance method—the plan-do-check-act PDCA cycle :. Common Dictionary Definitions of Continual and Continuous. Authors Sunil Kumar V. Kaushik and Georgios Zameptas believe it can.

Breakthrough Improvement

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ILS follows the principles of Hoshin Kanri in helping companies develop and execute effective strategic plans. Hoshin Kanri is a cyclic planning and management tool of Japanese origin. Companies apply it on two levels. At the strategic planning level, companies systematically set a small number of key long-range corporate objectives called Breakthrough Objectives.


While Breakthrough Strategic IT and Process Planning focuses on the real world of organizations, extensive treatment is also devoted to the.


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    16.04.2021 at 00:45
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