File Name: second language acquisition and second language learning stephen krashen .zip
Language Acquisition Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.
Linda Mayasari. Brown, Douglas, H. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Language Acquisition Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.
The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production.
In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful. Stephen Krashen University of Southern California is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development.
Much of his recent research has involved the study of non-English and bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20 years, he has published well over books and articles and has been invited to deliver over lectures at universities throughout the United States and Canada. This is a brief description of Krashen's widely known and well accepted theory of second language acquisition, which has had a large impact in all areas of second language research and teaching since the s.
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language.
It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. The "learned system" or "learning" is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen 'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'. The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former.
The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance. According to Krashen, the role of the monitor is - or should be - minor, being used only to correct deviations from "normal" speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.
Krashen also suggests that there is individual variation among language learners with regard to 'monitor' use. He distinguishes those learners that use the 'monitor' all the time over-users ; those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge under-users ; and those learners that use the 'monitor' appropriately optimal users.
An evaluation of the person's psychological profile can help to determine to what group they belong. Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the "monitor".
For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition. The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language.
In other words, this hypothesis is Krashen's explanation of how second language acquisition takes place. So, the Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. Finally, the fifth hypothesis, the Affective Filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition.
These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition.
In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place. According to Krashen, the study of the structure of the language can have general educational advantages and values that high schools and colleges may want to include in their language programs.
It should be clear, however, that examining irregularity, formulating rules and teaching complex facts about the target language is not language teaching, but rather is "language appreciation" or linguistics. The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition and proficiency is when the students are interested in the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instruction. Very often, when this occurs, both teachers and students are convinced that the study of formal grammar is essential for second language acquisition, and the teacher is skillful enough to present explanations in the target language so that the students understand.
In other words, the teacher talk meets the. Also, the filter is low in regard to the language of explanation, as the students" conscious efforts are usually on the subject matter, on what is being talked about, and not the medium. This is a subtle point. In effect, both teachers and students are deceiving themselves. They believe that it is the subject matter itself, the study of grammar, that is responsible for the students" progress, but in reality their progress is coming from the medium and not the message.
Any subject matter that held their interest would do just as well. Cambridge University Press, Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Hall International, Perhaps no-one has looked at the question more closely than the linguist Stephen Krashen, who has introduced some of the most influential concepts to the study of second-language acquisition.
In his input hypothesis, first proposed in an article published in , and expanded upon in later years, he makes the distinction between learning: the conscious, traditional grammar-based process in the classroom; and acquisition: essentially how we, as children, pick up our first language. He says that our mistake is trying to teach languages in the same way we teach science, history and mathematics.
Instead, he believes that learners should acquire second languages in the same way children learn their first. Krashen sums up the idea in a famous documentary on the subject called A child's guide to learning languages, produced by BBC Horizon in In the documentary, he says that acquisition is 'where the action is'.
In other words, in every successful example of language-learning an infant mastering a first language, an adult learner of English scoring a band 9 on the IELTS test the reason for their success is that they have 'acquired' rather than 'learned' the language.
So, how do children and proficient adult learners perform the seemingly magical trick of mastering a language, and what can teachers learn from this? Krashen offers the following ideas:. We acquire languages when we can understand messages Learners need to be exposed to what Krashen calls 'comprehensible input' that is, exposure to interesting and understandable listening and reading material.
In Krashen's view, we acquire languages when we understand messages. He stipulates that the emphasis should be on meaningful interactions and not on form. When parents speak to their children, for example, the emphasis is on meaning rather than the correct use of grammar.
If the child says, 'Daddy fish water! The theory here is that exposure to sufficient quantities of comprehensible input always results in acquisition. Getting the right level is crucial Krashen makes the important point that comprehensible input needs to be at the right level for the learner, namely just higher than the learner's own.
A good practical example of this in action are graded readers. These are books that are specially created for learners of foreign languages at various levels, such as A2, B1, C2, etc, on the common European framework CEFR. The silent period Children don't start speaking their mother tongue straight away. Until they utter their first words, they are acquiring language, even if they are not using it.
The miraculous first words and sentences that quickly follow are the result of this acquisition. Adult learners, both inside and outside the classroom, need this silent period, too. Teachers shouldn't be afraid when their students don't participate in debates in class perhaps they are simply acquiring the language. Moreover, putting pressure on the learner to speak before they are ready will result in anxiety.
Anxiety is the students arch enemy This brings me to one of Krashens most famous insights, namely the affective filter. This means that the rate of acquisition decreases if we are under stress, or if we experience anxiety. Luckily, most children have a virtually stress-free language-learning environment at home with their mothers and fathers.
But for learners of a second language, the classroom can be a cause of anxiety, greatly affecting the way they receive and process comprehensible input. By contrast, a house party with lots of international guests is a great place to practise languages, as everybody is relaxed and having a good time.
Such an environment offers the language learner plenty of comprehensible input, but hopefully none of the anxiety. The lesson here for teachers is that they can create a similar environment by turning the classroom into a sort of house party where people feel comfortable and relaxed.
In other words, when learners freely formulate an utterance in the target language, they can only draw upon their repertoire of acquired language to check whether it is grammatically correct. This reduces errors as the learner can apply consciously learned rules to an utterance before producing it, or after production through self-correction.
As many people place a high value on accuracy, especially in formal situations, the existence of the 'monitor' could be seen as a reason for retaining a grammar focus in a given lesson. One way to apply this in the classroom would be to have learners notice grammatical features in listening and reading texts using a guided discovery approach. For example, if the learners were given a listening task to do on the biography of a famous person who is still alive, the teacher could hand out the transcript and get the students to underline all of the examples of the present perfect tense.
This might be followed by a short discussion, led by the teacher, as to why the tense is being used in this particular situation, followed by some concept-checking questions to ensure students understand how to use the target language. However, Krashen is clear that the main focus of classroom activity should be on giving learners as much comprehensible input as possible.
Teachers should base their lessons on meaningful interactions with plenty of graded listening and reading input. The natural order hypothesis The grammar and vocabulary of a language are acquired in the same general order, irrespective of who the learner is, which language they are acquiring and the order of the grammar syllabus.
You can teach students reported speech, such as in the sentence, 'she mentioned that she had been at the shop that morning', but learners wont acquire it unless they are ready to.
Certain elements of grammar are 'late-acquired', such as the third person '-s', and others are 'early-acquired'. This explains why my little niece continues to say things like 'Daddy go to work every day', even when she has already mastered more complex grammatical structures such as a conditional sentence like, 'I would do it if I had time'.
Evidence for this 'natural sequence' of language acquisition can be found in the morpheme studies by Dulay and Burt. This casts doubt on the teaching of many points of grammar too early, that is, before students are ready to acquire them, such as the future perfect tense at intermediate level. The advantages children have over adult learners Before looking at the classroom implications of Krashens insights, we should remind ourselves of some of the advantages that children learning their first language have over adults learning a second language.
One of the principle advantages is that children are exposed to copious amounts of comprehensible input at just the right level, and there is no pressure on them to speak until they are ready to do so. Children can also take their time and wait until they feel.
Stephen D. Krashen born May 14, is professor emeritus at the University of Southern California ,  who moved from the linguistics department to the faculty of the School of Education in He is a linguist, educational researcher, and political activist. Stephen Krashen received a PhD. During the campaign to enact an anti-bilingual education law in California in , known as Proposition , Krashen campaigned aggressively in public forums, media talk shows, and conducted numerous interviews with journalists writing on the subject.
Stephen D Krashen I would also like the thank Eula P. Krashen and Judy Winn-Bell Attitude and Aptitude in Second Language Acquisition and Learning.
Cummins, Jim. Cummins, J. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. Hajimia, H. Krashen, S. The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. London: Prentice Hall Europe.
Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production. In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful. Stephen Krashen University of Southern California is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development. Much of his recent research has involved the study of non-English and bilingual language acquisition.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Krashen Published Computer Science. This text explores the relationship between second language teaching practice and what is known about the process of second language acquisition and summarizes the current state of second language acquisition theory.
Though neurological science, linguistics and neurolinguistics advance rapidly and gain new insights currently, one of human life's greatest mysteries still remains rather secret: New born children manage to acquire first steps of language really fast and almost gain perfection in complex grammatical abilities within a couple of years without someone instructing them about these features of language. In Contrast, adults undergo more or less great difficulties by learning a second language, additionally to their mother language and almost never attain perfection though spending a big effort. The question which automatically arises is the one concerning the differences between the two processes.
- Повисла продолжительная пауза. - Прости, что я тебе лгал. Попытка переделать Цифровую крепость - дело серьезное и хлопотное. Я не хотел тебя впутывать. - Я… понимаю, - тихо сказала она, все еще находясь под впечатлением его блистательного замысла.
Я распечатаю список. Войду, возьму его и тотчас выйду. Давай ключ.
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