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- Density and Specific Gravity - Practice Problems
- The relation between specific gravity and dry matter content of potato tubers
- Relative density
- Specific gravity

*Specific gravity , also called relative density , ratio of the density of a substance to that of a standard substance. Gases are commonly compared with dry air , which has a density of 1. For example, liquid mercury has a density of *

The theoretical basis of the relationship between the percentage of dry matter in a potato and its specific gravity is examined. The relationship is hyperbolic but, for values of dry matter percentage usually encountered with potatoes, a linear approximation is adequate. However the specific gravity of a tuber depends not only on the percentage of dry matter in it but also on the density of the dry matter and the percentage of air in the tissue.

Relative density , or specific gravity , [1] [2] is the ratio of the density mass of a unit volume of a substance to the density of a given reference material. The term "relative density" is often preferred in scientific usage. If a substance's relative density is less than 1 then it is less dense than the reference; if greater than 1 then it is denser than the reference. If the relative density is exactly 1 then the densities are equal; that is, equal volumes of the two substances have the same mass. If the reference material is water, then a substance with a relative density or specific gravity less than 1 will float in water. For example, an ice cube, with a relative density of about 0.

Problem 1: You have a rock with a volume of 15cm 3 and a mass of 45 g. What is its density? Show Problem 1 solution Hide Density is mass divided by volume, so that the density is 45 g divided by 15cm 3 , which is 3. Problem 2: You have a different rock with a volume of 30cm 3 and a mass of 60g. Show Problem 2 solution Hide Density is mass divided by volume, so that the density is 60 g divided by 30cm 3 , which is 2. Problem 3: In the above two examples which rock is heavier?

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Both density and specific gravity describe mass and may be used to compare different substances. They are not, however, identical measures. Specific gravity is an expression of density in relation to the density of a standard or reference usually water. Also, density is expressed in units weight relative to size while specific gravity is a pure number or dimensionless. Density is a property of matter and can be defined as the ratio of mass to a unit volume of matter.

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Water is normally also used as reference when calculating the specific gravity for solids. The temperature and pressure must always be specified for both the sample and the reference. Specific gravity of liquid water ranging 32 - o F and 0 - o C is given in figures and tables below:. Specific gravity SG for water is given for four different reference temperatures 4, 15, Specific gravity SG for water is given for four different reference temperatures

*As a result of the professional development provider-conducted module, participants will learn through the creation of their handmade hydrometers, how a hydrometer functions and what it measures.*

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## 3 Comments

## Laurence M.

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## Canthternemen

The most common laboratory units for density are g/cm3 (g/mL), while industrially, a variety of different units are encountered: lb/gal, lb/ft3, and lb/in3. Specific gravity is the density of a substance divided by the density of water. The density units cancel, leaving specific gravity a unitless number.

## Naufontcaphu

substance at a known temperature compared with the weight of a similar volume of some other substance also at a known temperature; it is therefore a ratio*. In.