File Name: meaning and argument an introduction to logic through language .zip
Publisher: Matthew J. Van Cleave. Attribution CC BY.
More broadly, logic is the analysis and appraisal of arguments. A good argument not only possesses validity and soundness or strength, in induction , but it also avoids circular dependencies , is clearly stated, relevant, and consistent ; otherwise it is useless for reasoning and persuasion, and is classified as a fallacy. In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words such as therefore , thus , hence , ergo , and so on.
In logic and philosophy , an argument is a series of statements in a natural language , called the premises or premisses both spellings are acceptable , intended to determine the degree of truth of another statement, the conclusion. Logic is the study of the forms of reasoning in arguments and the development of standards and criteria to evaluate arguments. Inductive arguments , by contrast, can have different degrees of logical strength: the stronger or more cogent the argument, the greater the probability that the conclusion is true, the weaker the argument, the lesser that probability. The Latin root arguere to make bright, enlighten, make known, prove, etc. Informal arguments as studied in informal logic , are presented in ordinary language and are intended for everyday discourse. Formal arguments are studied in formal logic historically called symbolic logic , more commonly referred to as mathematical logic today and are expressed in a formal language.
Arguments offer proof for a claim, or conclusion. Quite often the arguments have two or more premises and require multiple inferential steps to reach the conclusion. We will encounter examples of more elaborate arguments in the section 1. If we are not convinced by an argument, our pursuit, as students of philosophy, is to devise an objection or rebuttal argument to demonstrate that the original argument is defective. A rebuttal argument, too, is a claim conclusion supported by reasons premises.
Ordinary language argument examples are explained and diagrammed. Formal arguments are evaluated by their logical structure; informal arguments are studied and evaluated as parts of ordinary language and interpersonal discourse. Generally speaking, these reasons are presented as verbal reports. The reasons might not always be initially presented in declarative sentences, but in context must have their meaning preserved by translation or paraphrase into a statement or proposition. Comment : Notice that statements  and  work together as a reason, so both together provide evidence for .
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For greater appreciation of what an argument is and what it does, it is useful to contrast the entire category of arguments with things that are not arguments. What other kinds of things do we typically do with words, in passages of text or in speeches, conversations, etc.? We might just tell, or pass along, facts or apparent facts about a situation, pointing out some event or some feature of a situation. Or we might be saying how we feel about some person or state of affairs. Or we might talk about what we believe to be the case with respect to a given situation.
Вопрос национальной безопасности. За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал.
Внутри клубились тучи черного дыма. Все трое как завороженные смотрели на это зрелище, не лишенное какой-то потусторонней величественности. Фонтейн словно окаменел. Когда же он пришел в себя, его голос был едва слышен, но исполнен решимости: - Мидж, вызовите аварийную команду.
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