File Name: methods and techniques of data collection .zip
And reading sessions should last about 10 minutes. In-text referencing of anonymous work 23 3.
In the figure below we provide an abbreviated overview of each method. A more detailed description and explanation of each method along with its unique benefits and challenges is located below the figures. Document analysis is the most common form of data collection because it involves the gathering of existing documents and records. Surveys are probably the most recognized and popular form of data collection because they provide an easy way to collect a lot of information at once in a systematic and standardized way.
In the figure below we provide an abbreviated overview of each method. A more detailed description and explanation of each method along with its unique benefits and challenges is located below the figures. Document analysis is the most common form of data collection because it involves the gathering of existing documents and records.
Surveys are probably the most recognized and popular form of data collection because they provide an easy way to collect a lot of information at once in a systematic and standardized way.
If neither approach works, you can combine the approaches listed above. Interviews do not need to be conducted in a physical face-to-face format. Interviews may be done by phone or through live video streaming. Observations are useful in capturing data through recorded direct observations of people, places, or things. Therefore, it is incredibly important that the observer s are well trained and have a good understanding of the program.
The observer should be able to identify the behaviors or elements they are supposed to be looking for in the case of a structured observation, or be able to identify things that might be interesting or useful to the program evaluation, as they emerge, in the case of an unstructured observation. Low-inference observations — recorded exactly as they are observed with minimal inferences or interpretations made by the observer.
Print This Page. Determine Collection Method. Below is a summary of the most commonly used methods in evaluation: Document analysis Surveys Interviews Observations Focus groups Case studies Carefully consider each option before deciding which method s to use.
Program applications, finances, memos, minutes, etc. You can supplement your own data with documents from partners and local, regional, and national agencies United Way of America, Benefits Using existing information is typically cheap and sometimes free.
Data is often incomplete, old, or unreliable. Surveys ask the same questions in the same way for every study participant. Surveys are effective tools for collecting data for various sample sizes, small to large.
Surveys can be conducted at a single point in time or can be given over time as a pre- and post-assessment or continuously as a formative assessment. Do you want to go to college? By including this value judgment at the beginning of the question, the participant is being led to provide an affirmative response because the question implies that people who do not go to college are unsuccessful.
By administering the survey only in an online electronic format you are automatically eliminating families who do not have access to the internet from your survey response pool; these non-respondents are probably the least aware and the most affected by the new online filing system and their valuable perspectives would be lost from your study. Interviews are commonly used to collect qualitative data through oral questioning and response.
Data can be difficult to analyze since this type of interview is not standardized. Data is standardized across all participants so it is easier to analyze and identify patterns in the data for specific topics. Interviewer has no leeway to respond to specific concerns or topics of value that the participant may bring up during the interview.
This approach is specifically used to collect quantitative data. This approach is used when administering a survey in an interview format. This interview approach shares the same benefits i.
Like interviews, focus groups generate qualitative data. The interview approaches discussed previously can be used in focus group facilitation McNamara, To conduct a focus group: Select and interview approach and develop questions.
Contact a small sample of participants that is representative of the larger population you are trying to understand. Coordinate with all focus group participants to find a time in common when they can all meet together at a central physical or virtual phone or online location. This is why it is important to carefully select and group your focus group participants into discussion groups that will be productive.
Some evaluators choose group participants by characteristics they have in common. For example, you can conduct two focus groups, one with all adolescent participants, and one with all parents.
It is easy to understand how adolescents might censor their reactions and responses if placed in the same group with parents. When observing people, be sure to take note of their characteristics, interactions with others, speech, and non-verbal behaviors. Before observing, it is important to define what you are looking for, if anything. Challenges Data from unstructured observations are not standardized and can be difficult to analyze across multiple observation times and observers.
Challenges to this approach mimic those associated with informal conversational interviews. Useful in assessing program quality i. Study design can also create a bias. For example, if the observer observes an extremely high-quality program session they may view subsequent sessions they observe as less positive and rate them more harshly.
Another potential for bias in observation data is a performance bias which is when participants behave differently because they know they are being observed. Define your case. The case is your unit of analysis the thing you will be studying. Your case can be as small as one individual or as large as an internationally implemented program.
Regardless of its size, your case should be clear and identifiable. Your case should not be average or typical of the group it is representing this kind will provide the least useful information.
Select a case that is atypical, an extreme example either positive or negative , a prototype, or a strategically selected example of what you are trying to understand.
Decide which methods you will use to collect your data about the case. You must determine which combination of methods will give you the most comprehensive view of the case you are examining. Benefits Gather an extremely in-depth understanding from the data collected Challenges Data collected is case specific and may not be generalizable Method takes a large amount of resources e. Primarily quantitative but can also collect qualitative data in the form of documented narratives. Can be time-consumingInformation may be incomplete or unreliableData is restricted to what already exists; not flexible.
Primarily quantitative but can also collect qualitative data through open-ended or free response questions. Get full range and depth of informationPersonalDevelops relationship with participantAllows for participant flexibility.
Documented questions and answers with multiple program participants interviewed as a group. Primarily qualitative but can also collect quantitative data by numerically coding observations. Primarily qualitative but can also collect quantitative data by coding observations, using surveys and document analysis.
In-depth interviews and longitudinal observations of a particular case, group, event, or program. Very time-consuming to collect, organize and describeRepresents depth of information, rather than breadthVery expensive.
If an organization is considering whether to collect data on its own or get help from an external consultant, it will need to have enough information to make an informed decision about how to proceed. This section outlines some of the key considerations that may arise during various steps in the data collection process. There is no requirement that these steps be followed or pursued in the order that they are written. The model presented is offered as a reference tool. How data is gathered and analyzed depends on many factors, including the context, the issue that needs to be monitored, the purpose of the data collection, and the nature and size of the organization. The main consideration is to make sure that any information collected is done in a way and for a purpose that is consistent with the Code and complies with freedom of information and privacy protection legislation.
The underlying need for Data collection is to capture quality evidence that seeks to answer all the questions that have been posed. Through data collection business or management can deduce quality information that is a prerequisite for making informed decisions. To improve the quality of information, it is expedient that data is collected so that you can draw inferences and make informed decisions on what is considered factual. At the end of this article, you would understand why picking the best data collection method is necessary for achieving your set objective. Data collection is a methodical process of gathering and analyzing specific information to proffer solutions to relevant questions and evaluate the results. It focuses on finding out all there is to a particular subject matter.
Concept of Data Collection; Types of Data; Issues to be Considered for Data Collection; Methods of Primary Data Collection; Questionnaire Method; Interviews Method; Focus Group Discussion (FGD); Participatory Rural Appraisal/ Assessment (PRA); Rapid Rural Appraisal/ Assessment (RRA); Observation Method; Survey Method;.
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This section describes the tools and techniques that are used in quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods involve the collection and analysis of objective data, often in numerical form. The research design is determined prior to the start of data collection and is not flexible. The research process, interventions and data collection tools e. Table 8 provides an overview of quantitative data collection strategies. Qualitative research is generally used to explore values, attitudes, opinions, feelings and behaviours of individuals and understand how these affect the individuals in question.
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Already have an account? Log in. Sign up. If you need more help, please contact our support team. Today businesses and organizations are connected to their clients, customers, users, employees, vendors, and sometimes even their competitors. Data can tell a story about any of these relationships, and with this information, organizations can improve almost any aspect of their operations.
Jump to main content. Download PDF Version. This brief focuses on using mixed methods to evaluate patient-centered medical home PCMH models. The series is designed to expand the toolbox of methods used to evaluate and refine PCMH models. The PCMH is a primary care approach that aims to improve quality, cost, and patient and provider experience.
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