File Name: mycotoxins in food feed and bioweapons file.zip
Mycotoxins are made by different biosynthetic pathways, and they have an extremely wide range of pharmacological effects. This book will update readers on several cutting-edge aspects of mycotoxin research, including topics such as: new analytical methods for detection; the adoption of an ancient Mexican process for detoxification of aflatoxins; mycotoxin management in Ireland, Lithuania and South America; mycotoxin reduction through plant breeding and integrated management practices; and natural aflatoxin inhibitors from medicinal plants. Further contributions examine ochratoxins, selected trichothecenes, zearalenone, and aflatoxin-like gene clusters, as well as sclerotial development in Aspergillus flavus and A. Of particular interest are the chapters on the potential use of mycotoxins as bioweapons. This book will stimulate new thinking on the need to develop therapeutic as well as preventative interventions to reduce the toxicological threat of mycotoxins.
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis diseases and death in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins.
The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis.
The bacteria—xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota.
Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies.
Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma.
Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin contamination and mycotoxicosis. The momentum of scientific paper publication toward mycotoxin is an increasing trend where 16, papers were recorded in Scopus since the first mycotoxin, aflatoxin AF was identified in the year Data clearly showed the significance of mycotoxin research which will be further discussed later in this review paper.
Nevertheless, the global health issue arose from mycotoxin is still frequently ignored in many low-income countries, where mycotoxins affect staple foods Wild and Gong, The exposure is long-term and often at high doses, regretfully these particular regions are the least regulated in terms of agricultural practices and human exposure.
The attention only has been paid in the richer nations of the world, to meet stringent import regulations on mycotoxin contamination Battilani et al. To date, the world still desires for a more accurate evidence-based on mycotoxins and human health, as well as a better biomarker of exposure and data from studies of disease distribution.
Current data are valid to justify and respond to reduce exposure in vulnerable populations Freire and da Rocha, The implementation of more practical and affordable mycotoxin removal techniques at the household level to effectively reduce exposure are becoming increasingly important.
The GI tract is where the gut microbiota resides: it is known for its role in modulating the immune system and digestive processes. Gut microbiota work in concert with the GI tract protects the host from the toxicity of mycotoxins. Accordingly, integration of microbial-based approaches through maintaining a healthy gut microbiota is highly demanded.
However, not all mycotoxin are classified as such, for example, Penicillin, is widely used an antibiotic Speight, The structural form of mycotoxins varies from simple four C compounds, e. Fungal proliferation and production of mycotoxins rise naturally due to environmental factors, especially during tropical conditions Mohd-Redzwan et al.
Besides, the downstream processing such as poor harvesting practices, improper storage and less than optimal conditions during transportation, processing, and marketing can also contribute to the growth of fungi and increase the risk of the major food spoilage agent caused by mycotoxin production Khazaeli et al.
Due to their ubiquitous nature of fungi, mycotoxins have been increasingly attracting the concern of health organizations where their occurrence in foods cannot be ignored and already poses risk to consumers Jahanian, The toxic effect of mycotoxins on animal and human health is referred to as mycotoxicosis.
Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. The extent of adverse effects of mycotoxins on human or animals health mainly depends on the extent of exposure dosage and period , type of mycotoxins, physiological and nutritional status as well as possible synergistic effects of other chemicals to which the animals or humans are exposed Gajecka et al.
In , interest on mycotoxins was initiated by the occurrence of Turkey X disease caused by AF, which killed more than , turkeys. Subsequently, it was found that AFs are carcinogenic and cause hepatocellular carcinoma HCC in animals and humans, and this has stimulated research on mycotoxins Peraica et al. Since then, around mycotoxins are known, but AFs, ochratoxins, zearalenone ZEA , fumonisins FBs and trichothecenes are mostly focused on public health issues Ates et al.
Mycotoxin exposure is not only limited to pure mycotoxins but also masked mycotoxin which formed when plants protect themselves by conjugating mycotoxins to biopolymers. In addition, some people are more susceptible to getting mycotoxicosis than others, and this is due to the pharmacogenetic variability where specific gene mutations such as cytochrome p CYP genes could either increase or decrease the metabolic activity cytotoxicity of the challenging mycotoxins Sun et al.
For instance, in both in vivo Muhammad et al. Chronic mycotoxicosis causes a greater impact on human health. Frequently, mycotoxicosis remains unrecognized by medical professionals. Mycotoxicosis can be weighed when a disease appears in several persons, with no obvious connection to a known etiological agent, such as microorganisms Viegas et al.
By the year , the world's population is estimated to reach 8. This scenario will, in turn, have a tremendous negative impact on food supply FAO, It is worth to note that the presence of hazardous substances e. There is now widespread consensus that the earth is warming at an unprecedented rate Medina et al. The geographic distribution and production of the crop, as well as the phyllosphere microflora of crops, are expected to be strongly affected by climate change.
For instance, mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus are able to grow under high temperatures and drought conditions. The resilient growth of A. A similar case also found in Hungary, where the increase in AFs contamination may be due to climate change conditions Dobolyi et al.
The world's largest agri-food exporters include countries such as Brazil and Argentina and parts of Asia including China and India are identified as hot spots for impacts of climate change Ray et al. Thus, from a food security perspective, a more accurate prediction of impacts of climate change on mycotoxins need to be addressed to prevent compromised food sustainability which possibly resulting in negative social consequences. The GI tract is an organ within humans and other animals which responsible for food ingestion, digestion, energy and nutrients absorption, immune response, as well as elimination of waste products feces Celi et al.
The architecture of the GI tract is intended to facilitate these functions. The basic feature of GI tract is a muscular tube lined by a mucous membrane and comprised four layers forming a continuous passage. All segments of the GI tract are divided into four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria, and serosa Jaladanki and Wang, The mucosa is made up of three layers epithelium, lamina propria, and muscular mucosae.
The entire mucosa rests on the submucosa, beneath which is the muscularis propria. The outermost layer is named as the serosa. The complex infolding at mucosa layer forms an immense surface area for the most efficient nutrient absorption. The submucosa contains arteries, veins, inflammatory cells, lymphatics, and autonomic nerves. The muscularis mucosa is a thin layer of smooth muscle that forms the basis of peristalsis. While, the serosa is made of connective tissue that contains blood vessels, nerves, and fat Jaladanki and Wang, The epithelium layer at the innermost of mucosa is of vital importance for intestinal barrier function.
The intestinal epithelium is one layer of thin cells lining the gut lumen. The epithelial contains enterocytes, enteroendocrine, and goblet cells at villi, whereas the Paneth cells, located under the crypts Fink and Koo, It acts as a barrier to block the entry of harmful agents such as pathogens, toxins, and foreign antigens. Besides, it is also an important site for nutrient absorption including electrolytes, dietary nutrients, and water via its selective permeable membrane Constantinescu and Chou, Each intestinal epithelial cell is connected by desmosomes, tight junctions TJs , and adherens junctions AJs.
The AJs and desmosomes are responsible for the mechanical linkage of adjacent cells. Whereas, the TJs control the intercellular space and regulate selective paracellular ionic solute transport Capaldo et al. Above the epithelium lies a complex microflora which is recognized as gut microbiota and the role of gut microbiota will be discussed later in this review article. The selective permeable barrier of mucosal epithelium establishes the interplay between the intestinal immune system and the luminal contents.
Upon ingestion of contaminated food or feed, the GI tract is particularly affected by mycotoxin. Generally, intestinal barrier in the GI tract functions as a filter against harmful mycotoxins.
However, some mycotoxins have been found to exert their detrimental effects in the GI tract. For example, mycotoxins can alter the normal intestinal functions such as barrier function and nutrient absorption. Some mycotoxins also affect the histomorphology of intestine. The impacts of mycotoxins include trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and AFs on general and gut health will be comprehensively reviewed.
Fusarium graminearum is the main fungi species that produces tricothecenes. All tricothecenes contain an epoxide at the C12, C13 positions, which is responsible for their toxicological activity Nathanail et al. During World War II, a biological weapon caused an acute syndrome consists of cough, sore throat, dyspnea, bloody nasal discharge, and fever was reported by Soviet scientists Pitt and Miller, Twenty years later, T-2 mycotoxin was discovered when civilians consumed wheat that was unintentionally contaminated with Fusarium fungi Pitt and Miller, A human toxicosis due to ingestion of moldy rice contaminated with T-2 toxin has been reported in China.
According to Wang Z. Trichothecenes toxic effects in animals dairy cattle, swines, broilers, and rats include decreased plasma glucose, reduced blood cell and leukocyte count, weight loss, alimentary toxic aleukia, as well as pathological changes in the liver and stomach Adhikari et al. Furthermore, T-2 and DON are well-known inhibitors of protein synthesis resulting from the binding of peptidyl-transferase, which is located in the 60s ribosomal subunit Yang et al.
The weight loss effect of trichothecenes involved neuroendocrine factors and cytokines. Using animal models, trichothecenes was found to induce necrotic lesions in the GI tract Kolf-Clauw et al. A shortening of villi height was also observed in trichothecenes-treated animals swine, poultry, and rat model. The changes on villi were due to activation of the apoptotic pathway by trichothecenes, which in turn leads to nutrition malabsorption Alizadeh et al.
Furthermore, results obtained from in vivo and in vitro studies showed that trichothecenes increased intestinal permeability.
Using porcine epithelial cell, trichothecenes increased the intestinal permeability by lowering tight junction proteins expression Osselaere et al. Mucin is primarily involved in the gut barrier function Pinton and Oswald, The disruption in the integrity of intestinal epithelium allows the entry of the pathogen into the gut lumen Lessard et al.
Besides, trichothecenes have been linked with a decreased level of IL-8 in the intestine, which is responsible for pathogen removal Kadota et al. Overall, trichothecenes exert negative impacts on GI tracts specifically on the gut absorption, integrity, and immunity. Zearalenone ZEA is a mycotoxin that primarily produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum in foods and feeds.
The high rate of co-occurrence of ZEA with FBs and DON indicates that these mycotoxins might be involved in a wide range of synergistic and additive interactions. It is well recognized that ZEA is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin that is implicated in the reproductive disorders of farm animals swines, cattle, and sheep and hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans Kotowicz et al.
The rhetoric is not yet white hot but certainly heating up. North Korea wants nuclear-tipped intercontinental missiles. The U. The potential threats are becoming more real with each passing day as new information is made public. North Korea has chemical, biological and nuclear weapons programs.
For this reason we think is important to thank them. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from false alarms and use of agents by individuals or small groups against individuals or smaller subgroups of the population to state-sponsored terrorism that employs biological warfare agents BWAs and their diffusion systems that can produce mass victims. These agents can cause large-scale mortality, incapacitate a large number of people in short time or have adverse effects on human health. In a military context, incapacitating agents may be more effective as the unit will not be able to carry out its mission and the victims consume little medical and evacuation resources. BWAs aerosols are invisible, silent, odorless and relatively easily dispersed. Their production is relatively easy, using the common technology available for the production of certain antibiotics, vaccines, foods and beverages.
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The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis diseases and death in human and animals.
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Reduction of aflatoxin B 1 during tortilla production and identification of degradation by-products by direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry DIESI-MS. Corresponding author. To determine the effect of pH, and exposure time over the inactivation of aflatoxin B 1 AFB 1 during the tortilla making process as well as the degradative molecules generated.
Mycotoxins, chemicals produced by fungi, may have developed to serve as a chemical defense system against insects, microorganisms, nematodes, grazing animals, and humans. Approximately known mycotoxins exist. This article describes the major mycotoxins that affect human health and highlights the mycotoxins with potential bioterrorist use. Mycotoxins can benefit humans by their use as antibiotics penicillins , immunosuppressants cyclosporine , and in control of postpartum hemorrhage and migraine headaches ergot alkaloids.
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