File Name: japanese and chinese traditions .zip
Businessmen in the United States and Europe know Japanese industry as an important supplier, customer, and competitor.
In the 19 th century, after a long period of isolationism, China and then Japan came under pressure from the West to open to foreign trade and relations.
The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States had created a wide gap between them and the West, leaving the two Asian nations behind technologically and military.
In that period, neither of them had the power to stand up to the Western nations, and eventually both had to sign unequal treaties that forced them to open their ports and cities to foreign merchants. However, the way this process happened in each country and their reaction to it were very different, attracting the interest of many historians Lockwood, How could two civilizations apparently so similar to each other react so differently to the same historical event?
Both countries had long maintained isolationist tendencies, with limited commerce with the West. China welcomed foreign trade, but western merchants had no privileges there and were confined to Canton, where they could only deal with the Co-hong, a group of traders Edwardes, Japan was even stricter, allowing commerce only with the Dutch, who had access to only one port, Dejima Rosenberg, This situation was not to be accepted by the Western nations for long, however, and by Lord Napier was sent by Britain to pressure the Chinese into allowing a more open trade.
Tensions eased temporarily, but the situation precipitated due to the British illicit trade in opium. In , the new imperial commissioner Lin Tze-hsu arrived in Canton and confiscated 20, chests of opium from the British.
This marked the beginning of the first of the Opium Wars, which would result in Chinese defeat and the establishment of a system of unequal treaties Edwardes, Martin, Fairbank and Reischauer, Japan, on the contrary, was much more receptive to the demands of Western envoys.
In Commodore Perry was sent by the United states to give an ultimatum to Japan to open its ports, and when he returned the next year the Japanese authorities accepted to negotiate with him Storry, Rosenberg, An important factor causing this difference of reactions to Western pressure between Japan and China was historical timing.
China, on the other hand, had no proof of Western military superiority and no previous examples to be guided by. These texts had been copied again and again since the Ming dynasty, and therefore presented an outdated view of the world.
And yet they were the only available source of information about the West, because contact with foreigners was restricted to the Co-hong in Canton Fairbank and Reischauer, Japan was far more interested than China in gaining knowledge both about and from the West.
It created the Institute for the Investigation of Barbarian Books, which in was an office in charge of translating Western texts, and by became a school of Western knowledge and languages. Scholars of Western knowledge were allowed to speak out and divulge information freely Reischauer, It is not surprising, then, that the Japanese officials were able to more clearly assess their situation in relation to the Western powers than their Chinese counterparts, and to make a decision based on facts instead of prejudices.
A second difference between the Chinese and Japanese responses to the West was that Japan successfully modernized and became an industrialized power, while China failed to do so. Thus foreign technicians were brought to Japan and increasing numbers of Japanese were sent to Western countries to learn from them. Feudalism was abolished, new taxation and coinage systems established, and Western infrastructure and institutions, such as banks and railways, adopted Storry, China implemented Western innovations and attempted to modernize as well, starting after the suppression of the Taiping rebellion in Therefore, modernization in China occurred only at a very superficial level Edwardes, Japan, on the other hand, went so far as to change its political system by employing a Constitution that gave legislative powers to an Imperial Diet.
Being the biggest, most powerful country in its region had given China the belief that it was the center of civilization. All non-Chinese were considered barbarians, and thus their culture inferior Hao and Wang, The Meiji oligarchy, formed by extraordinary men like Ito and Matsukata, was committed to reform along Western lines for the benefit of the country, and worked towards it with energy and courage Lockwood, In China, however, the ruling class was an opponent rather than a promoter of progress, being predominantly conservative.
There was a centralized authority, but it was balanced by the existence of a clan system. Therefore, power was far less unified than in China, where the rigid bureaucratic system stifled capitalist initiative and competition. The Western clans themselves led the wave of innovation unleashed by business competition Fairbank and Reischauer, Lockwood, In conclusion, we have seen how despite the similarities between these two civilizations, China and Japan responded very differently to pressure from the Western nations in the 19 th century; Japan gave in to their demands for an increased opening of trade relations and successfully modernized, while China refused to break its isolationism and remained mired in the past, held back by its antiquated institutions.
It remains to be seen whether it is too early to fully assess the effects of Western influence in East Asia since the 19 th century.
Craig, A. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Edwardes, M. The World of Empires. London: Benn, pp. Fairbank, J. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Hall, J. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company. Hao, Y. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Keene, D. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Lockwood, W. Available at: www.
Martin, C. New York: Abelard-Schuman Limited. Moulder, F. Storry, R. London: Penguin. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view.
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The Chinese refer to their country as the Middle Kingdom, an indication of how central they have felt themselves to be throughout history. There are cultural and linguistic variations in different regions, but for such a large country the culture is relatively uniform. However, fifty-five minority groups inhabit the more remote regions of the country and have their own unique cultures, languages, and customs. Location and Geography. China has a land area of 3,, square miles 9,, square kilometers , making it the world's third largest nation.
Daoism in Japan: Chinese Traditions and Their Influence on. Japanese Religious Culture ed. by Jeffrey L. Richey (review). Gaynor Sekimori. The Journal of.
Japanese culture was influenced from ancient times to the Middle Ages primarily by multiple Chinese dynasties and to a lesser extent by other Asian countries. For example the Japanese language uses Chinese characters kanji for writing, but Japanese has no genetic relationship with Chinese. The inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world for over years during the Tokugawa shogunate until the arrival of the " Black Ships " and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world, mainly because of the global reach of its popular culture. Japanese is the national and primary language of Japan.
Last Updated: June 24, References. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed , times.
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Edited by Jeffrey L. Routledge, London, Though there is no dispute that Daoism is present in Japanese culture, the degree and importance of its influence has been the subject of ongoing scholarly debate. One problem has been dislodging its specificity from the broader mass of Chinese culture that has entered Japan over 15 centuries. These entered Daoism as part of Chinese traditional culture.
Расслабьтесь, мистер Беккер. Если будет ошибка, мы попробуем снова, пока не добьемся успеха. - Плохой совет, мистер Беккер, - огрызнулся Джабба.
Она окинула его высокомерным взглядом и швырнула отчет на стол. - Я верю этим данным. Чутье подсказывает мне, что здесь все верно.
Лифт, соединяющий шифровалку с основным зданием, получал питание из главного комплекса, и оно действовало, несмотря на отключение питания шифровалки. Стратмору, разумеется, это было хорошо известно, но даже когда Сьюзан порывалась уйти через главный выход, он не обмолвился об этом ни единым словом.
Решив, что никакой опасности нет, Стратмор запустил файл, минуя фильтры программы Сквозь строй. Сьюзан едва могла говорить. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило.
Болван этот полицейский.
На коммутатор поступает сообщение. Фонтейн тотчас повернулся к стене-экрану. Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил.
Сьюзан - вздохнул он - Я не могу сейчас об этом говорить, внизу ждет машина.
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