File Name: harmer teaching and learning grammar .zip
Task-based language teaching TBLT , also known as task-based instruction TBI , focuses on the use of authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language.
Such tasks can include visiting a doctor, conducting an interview, or calling customer service for help. Assessment is primarily based on task outcome in other words the appropriate completion of real-world tasks rather than on accuracy of prescribed language forms. This makes TBLT especially popular for developing target language fluency and student confidence. Task-based language learning has its origins in communicative language teaching , and is a subcategory of it.
Educators adopted task-based language learning for a variety of reasons. Some moved to task-based syllabus in an attempt to develop learner capacity to express meaning,  while others wanted to make language in the classroom truly communicative, rather than the pseudo-communication that results from classroom activities with no direct connection to real-life situations. Others, like Prabhu in the Bangalore Project , thought that tasks were a way of tapping into learners' natural mechanisms for second-language acquisition, and weren't concerned with real-life communication per se.
TBLT was popularized by N. Prabhu while working in Bangalore, India according to Jeremy Harmer. Major scholars who have done research in this area include Teresa P. Pica , Martin East, and Michael Long. A concept, earlier known as the "communicative activity" in s and 80's  was later replaced by the term task has since been defined differently by different scholars.
David Nunan draws upon the definitions given by other experts, of two types of tasks: target tasks and pedagogical tasks. Targets tasks refer to doing something outside the classroom and in the real world; whereas pedagogical tasks refer to the tasks students perform inside the classroom and in response to target language input or processing. Nunan concludes that target tasks may be non-linguistic.
He defines pedagogical task as a classroom activity that involves a student to understand and produce the target language while focusing on conveying the meaning and not being too concerned with form. According to Rod Ellis , a task has four main characteristics: .
The core of the lesson or project is, as the name suggests, the task. Teachers and curriculum developers should bear in mind that any attention to form, i. Although there may be several effective frameworks for creating a task-based learning lesson, here is a basic outline:. In the pre-task, the teacher will present what will be expected from the students in the task phase.
Additionally, in the "weak" form of TBLT, the teacher may prime the students with key vocabulary or grammatical constructs, although this can mean that the activity is, in effect, more similar to the more traditional present-practice-produce PPP paradigm. In "strong" task-based learning lessons, learners are responsible for selecting the appropriate language for any given context themselves.
The instructors may also present a model of the task by either doing it themselves or by presenting picture, audio, or video demonstrating the task. During the task phase, the students perform the task, typically in small groups, although this depends on the type of activity. Unless the teacher plays a particular role in the task, the teacher's role is typically limited to one of an observer or counselor—thereby making it a more student-centered methodology.
If learners have created tangible linguistic products, e. If a task is set to extend over longer periods of time, e. According to N. Prabhu, there are three main categories of task: information-gap, reasoning-gap, and opinion-gap. Information-gap activity , which involves a transfer of given information from one person to another — or from one form to another, or from one place to another — generally calling for the decoding or encoding of information from or into language.
One example is pair work in which each member of the pair has a part of the total information for example an incomplete picture and attempts to convey it verbally to the other. Another example is completing a tabular representation with information available in a given piece of text.
The activity often involves selection of relevant information as well, and learners may have to meet criteria of completeness and correctness in making the transfer. Reasoning-gap activity , which involves deriving some new information from given information through processes of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or a perception of relationships or patterns. One example is working out a teacher's timetable on the basis of given class timetables.
Another is deciding what course of action is best for example cheapest or quickest for a given purpose and within given constraints. The activity necessarily involves comprehending and conveying information, as in information-gap activity, but the information to be conveyed is not identical with that initially comprehended.
There is a piece of reasoning which connects the two. Opinion-gap activity , which involves identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation.
One example is story completion; another is taking part in the discussion of a social issue. The activity may involve using factual information and formulating arguments to justify one's opinion, but there is no objective procedure for demonstrating outcomes as right or wrong, and no reason to expect the same outcome from different individuals or on different occasions.
According to Jon Larsson, in considering problem-based learning for language learning, i. Task-based learning benefits students because it is more student-centered, allows for more meaningful communication, and often provides for practical extra-linguistic skill building. As the tasks are likely to be familiar to the students e.
According to Jeremy Harmer, tasks promote language acquisition through the types of language and interaction they require. Harmer says that although the teacher may present language in the pre-task, the students are ultimately free to use what grammar constructs and vocabulary they want.
This allows them, he says, to use all the language they know and are learning, rather than just the 'target language' of the lesson. According to Plews and Zhao, task-based language learning can suffer in practice from poorly informed implementation and adaptations that alter its fundamental nature. They say that lessons are frequently changed to be more like traditional teacher-led presentation-practice-production lessons than task-based lessons. As an outgrowth of the widespread interest in task-based teaching, the Biennial International Conference on Task-Based Language Teaching has occurred every other year since Past conferences have been held in Belgium,  the United States,  England,  New Zealand,  Canada,  with the conference scheduled to take place in Barcelona, Spain.
In addition, the Japan Association for Language Teaching has a special interest group devoted to task-based learning,  which has also hosted its own conference in Japan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Language Teaching. Task-based Language Teaching.
New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved European Commission. Retrieved 26 January Doughty, Catherine; Pica, Teresa Ellis, Rod Task-based Language Learning and Teaching.
Frost, Richard. British Council Teaching English. Retrieved September 21, Harmer, Jeremy Essex: Pearson Education. Larsson, Jon Polonia Institute, Jagiellonian University. Retrieved 27 January Georgetown University Press. Niemeier, Susanne Task-based grammar teaching of english: Where cognitive grammar and task-based language teaching meet. Francke Verlag. Loschky, L. In Crookes, G. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. Plews, John L. Prabhu, N.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January Willis, Jane A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Language education. Mother tongue mirroring Sandwich technique Back-chaining Dictogloss Information gap. Bilingual dictionary Critical period hypothesis English as a lingua franca Interlanguage Language transfer Second-language acquisition World Englishes.
Betty Azar H. List of countries where English is an official language List of countries by English-speaking population Most commonly learned foreign languages in the U. EF English Proficiency Index. Categories : Language-teaching methodology. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: URL Harv and Sfn no-target errors All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January Namespaces Article Talk.
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Summary: The highly acclaimed Practice of English Language Teaching is the essential guide for teachers of English in a wide range of contexts. The fifth edition has been revised to reflect new developments in language teaching. It explains current pedagogy to teachers who want to access the most relevant ELT practices and incorporate them into their lessons. Illustrations note w. This text was designed to provide early childhood teachers with foundational knowledge of how children develop literacy beginning in infancy and continuing through third grade.
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