File Name: macronutrients in fruit plants and their functions .zip
Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are essential plant nutrients. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are generally adequate in most Mississippi soils with favorable pH and organic matter levels.
In the previous session you learned about nutrition, nutrients, food and food choices. In this session, you will learn about each nutrient in more detail. You will learn about the major categories of nutrients, the main sources of these, their function, and how our body uses each of these nutrients for healthy growth and development.
In the previous session you learned about nutrition, nutrients, food and food choices. In this session, you will learn about each nutrient in more detail. You will learn about the major categories of nutrients, the main sources of these, their function, and how our body uses each of these nutrients for healthy growth and development. There are seven main classes of nutrients that the body needs. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water.
It is important that everyone consumes these seven nutrients on a daily basis to help them build their bodies and maintain their health. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases. This study session will help you to explain to families and individuals in your community the importance of consuming a healthy and balanced diet, and how to do this with the resources available to them.
SAQ 2. Based on the amount of the nutrients that each person needs to consume on a daily basis, these nutrients are categorised into two groups. These are macronutrients, which should be consumed in fairly large amounts, and micronutrients, which are only required in small amounts. They include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fibre and water. These substances are needed for the supply of energy and growth, for metabolism and other body functions.
Macronutrients provide a lot of calories but the amount of calories provided varies, depending on the food source. For example, each gram of carbohydrate or protein provides four calories, while fat provides nine calories for each gram. These include minerals and vitamins. Although most foods are mixtures of nutrients, many of them contain a lot of one nutrient and a little of the other nutrients.
Foods are often grouped according to the nutrient that they contain in abundance see Box 2. Foods that contain a lot of protein are called body-building foods or growing foods.
Foods that contain a lot of fat or carbohydrates and perhaps only a little protein are called energy - giving foods. Foods in which the most important nutrients are vitamins or minerals are called protective foods. If people are to stay healthy they must eat a mixed diet of different foods which contain the right amount of nutrients.
Carbohydrates are referred to as energy-giving foods. They provide energy in the form of calories that the body needs to be able to work, and to support other functions.
Carbohydrates are needed in large amounts by the body. This energy is usually in the form of glucose, which all tissues and cells in our bodies readily use. For the brain, kidneys, central nervous system and muscles to function properly, they need carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are usually stored in the muscles and the liver, where they are later used for energy. Other foods like vegetables, beans, nuts and seeds contain carbohydrates, but in lesser amounts.
Based on the number of sugar units , carbohydrates are classified into three groups; these are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. You need to know the classes of carbohydrates to enable you to give relevant advice to patients with special needs like diabetes when someone has problems regulating the amounts of glucose in their body.
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are referred to as simple sugars or simple carbohydrates that our body can easily utilise. Examples include sugar, honey, sweet fruits and sugar cane. Polysaccharides are called complex carbohydrates and they need to be broken down into simple sugars to be used by our body. They can be consumed by diabetic patients without restriction. Examples include starch and cellulose.
Which of these foods are simple sugars and should not be eaten in large quantities by patients who have diabetes?
Proteins are needed in our diets for growth especially important for children, teens and pregnant women and to improve immune functions.
They also play an important role in making essential hormones and enzymes, in tissue repair, preserving lean muscle mass, and supplying energy in times when carbohydrates are not available.
Pregnant women need protein to build their bodies and that of the babies and placentas, to make extra blood and for fat storage. Breastfeeding mothers need protein to make breastmilk. The main sources of proteins are meats, chicken, eggs, breastmilk, beans, ground nuts, lentils, fish, cheese and milk.
All animal foods contain more protein than plants and are therefore usually better sources of body building foods. However, even though plant proteins see Figure 2. Look again at the list of foods you wrote in Section 2. Which of these foods are sources of protein?
Which of these food groups have good quality protein? Beans, nuts, lentils, breastmilk, meat, egg, chicken, cheese and milk are sources of protein. Really good quality protein can be found in animal sources such as breastmilk, meat, eggs, chicken, cheese and milk.
Fats and oils are concentrated sources of energy and so are important nutrients for young children who need a lot of energy-rich food. Fats can also make meals more tasty and satisfying. Fat is found in meat, chicken, milk products, butters, creams, avocado, cooking oils and fats, cheese, fish and ground nuts. Fats are classified into saturated and unsaturated fats. Saturated fats are usually solid at cool temperatures.
Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. These types of fats are healthy fats. Examples include fats from fish, oil seeds sesame and sunflower , maize oil and ground nut oil and breastmilk. Look at the list of foods you wrote in Section 2. Which of these foods are sources of fats? Which of these fats are not healthy fats? Cooking oils, butter, meat, chicken, fish, ground nut oils and breastmilk are among the sources of fats. Butter, meat fats and oils from animal sources are not good fats, because they have a high amount of saturated fats.
You may remember from Study Session 1 that a 50 kg adult contains about 31 litres of water and a one year old, 10 kg child contains nearly 8 litres of water. Almost every part of the body contains large amounts of water. People can live without solid food for a few weeks, but we cannot live without water for more than a few days.
An adult needs about 2—3 litres of water each day. That is why giving drinks are so important when people lose a lot of water, such as when they have diarrhoea. Fibre is a mixture of different carbohydrates which are not digested like other nutrients but pass through the gut nearly unchanged. In this section you have learned about the macronutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water and fibre, and how they nourish the body.
You are now going to learn more about vitamins and minerals, the important micronutrients. Vitamins are groups of related substances present in small amounts in foodstuffs and are necessary for the body to function normally.
Vitamins are also called protective foods. They are grouped together because, as their name implies, they are a vital factor in the diet. Fat soluble vitamins vitamins A, D, E and K are soluble in fats and fat solvents. They are insoluble in water. So these are utilised only if there is enough fat in the body. Water soluble vitamins vitamins B and C, and folic acid are soluble in water and so they cannot be stored in the body.
The best sources of micronutrients in our diets are fruits and vegetables. These two food groups contain essential vitamins and minerals. Animal sources of foods are also both good sources of micronutrients. However, an adequate micronutrient intake can only be achieved through sufficient intake of a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables. Table 2. Fresh fruits oranges, banana, mango, grapefruits, lemons, potatoes and vegetables cabbage, carrots, pepper, tomatoes.
Epithelial cells form the thin layer of tissue lining the gut, respiratory and genitourinary systems. Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency which leads to sore skin, bleeding gums and internal bleeding. Minerals are the substances that people need to ensure the health and correct working of their soft tissues, fluids and their skeleton.
Examples of minerals include calcium, iron, iodine, fluorine, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, selenium, and sodium. What are the main sources of micronutrients and why are they important as part of a healthy diet? Fruits and vegetables are the main sources of micronutrients. Animal foods also have micronutrients. The vitamins and minerals that make up micronutrients have a crucial role in enabling the body to function properly. Your role as a Health Extension Practitioner is to advise people in your community to have a balanced diet that includes micronutrients.
You will learn more about micronutrients in Study Session 7, in particular the impact of deficiencies in vitamin A, iron and iodine on individuals and communities. It is important that you know enough to be able to recommend a balanced diet for the people in your community.
Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from all the food groups. It also means eating certain things in small amounts, namely saturated fat, cholesterol, simple sugar, salt and alcohol. The goal is to take in all of the nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels and perhaps restrict those things that are not good for the body. To know if the diet is balanced and to plan a balanced diet you have to think about two things: the mixture of foods and the amount of food a person eats.
The best way to help individuals in your community prepare a balanced diet is to learn which foods people use, the amount of different foods available, and how they prepare their meals.
Plants obtain food in two different ways. Autotrophic plants can make their own food from inorganic raw materials, such as carbon dioxide and water, through photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. Green plants are included in this group. Some plants, however, are heterotrophic: they are totally parasitic and lacking in chlorophyll. These plants, referred to as holo-parasitic plants, are unable to synthesize organic carbon and draw all of their nutrients from the host plant.
Identify and diagnose common plant nutrient deficiency and toxicity symptoms Management Module 7, Micronutrients: Cycling Field symptoms appear different than pdf?OpenElement. Ulrich, A., J.T. Moraghan, and E.D. Whitney.
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The independent effects of irrigation solution N, P and K concentrations on flowering and fruit set in olive trees Olea europaea L. Barnea were studied over two successive seasons in a container experiment. Treatments included eight levels of N ranging from 5 to ppm, seven levels of P from 0. At low concentrations of each of the minerals, additions led to large increases in their contents in leaves and, as the concentrations became high, relative increases in leaf accumulation were reduced.
This research evaluated the monthly variation of plant mineral nutrition in six species of fruit trees over a year. Mandarin mineral nutrition was monitored for one year, and grape and fig from May to November. The concentration of N and P had seasonal differences, especially in apple and peach, which reached the peak during the summer. Apple, fig, and grape trees had large ranging on their mineral contents over the year, especially with the P and K levels reaching the minimum during the harvesting season.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply. In its absence the plant is unable to complete a normal life cycle, or that the element is part of some essential plant constituent or metabolite. This is in accordance with Justus von Liebig's law of the minimum. Plants must obtain the following mineral nutrients from their growing medium:- . These elements stay beneath soil as salts , so plants absorb these elements as ions.
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