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Elements And Macromolecules In Organisms Pdf

elements and macromolecules in organisms pdf

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Identify the initial reactants, final products, and general purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in photosynthetic organisms. Compare and contrast the functions and structures of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.


A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules present in organisms that are essential to one or more typically biological processes , such as cell division , morphogenesis , or development. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are an important element of living organisms, those biomolecules are often endogenous , [2] produced within the organism [3] but organisms usually need exogenous biomolecules, for example certain nuts , to survive.

Biology and its subfields of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions. But many other elements, such as the various biometals , are present in small amounts. The uniformity of both specific types of molecules the biomolecules and of certain metabolic pathways are invariant features among the wide diversity of life forms; thus these biomolecules and metabolic pathways are referred to as "biochemical universals" [4] or "theory of material unity of the living beings", a unifying concept in biology, along with cell theory and evolution theory.

Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides.

Both DNA and RNA are polymers , consisting of long, linear molecules assembled by polymerase enzymes from repeating structural units, or monomers, of mononucleotides. Modified bases are fairly common such as with methyl groups on the base ring , as found in ribosomal RNA or transfer RNAs or for discriminating the new from old strands of DNA after replication. Each nucleotide is made of an acyclic nitrogenous base , a pentose and one to three phosphate groups.

They contain carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorus. They serve as sources of chemical energy adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate , participate in cellular signaling cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions coenzyme A , flavin adenine dinucleotide , flavin mononucleotide , and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.

This is known as B-form DNA, and is overwhelmingly the most favorable and common state of DNA; its highly specific and stable base-pairing is the basis of reliable genetic information storage. DNA can sometimes occur as single strands often needing to be stabilized by single-strand binding proteins or as A-form or Z-form helices, and occasionally in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at Holliday junctions during DNA replication. RNA, in contrast, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures reminiscent of proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that constitute messenger RNA molecules.

Those RNA structures contain many stretches of A-form double helix, connected into definite 3D arrangements by single-stranded loops, bulges, and junctions. These complex structures are facilitated by the fact that RNA backbone has less local flexibility than DNA but a large set of distinct conformations, apparently because of both positive and negative interactions of the extra OH on the ribose.

Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates with only one simple sugar. They essentially contain an aldehyde or ketone group in their structure. Similarly, a ketone group is denoted by the prefix keto-. Consumed fructose and glucose have different rates of gastric emptying, are differentially absorbed and have different metabolic fates, providing multiple opportunities for 2 different saccharides to differentially affect food intake. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars, form a bond with removal of water.

They can be hydrolyzed to yield their saccharin building blocks by boiling with dilute acid or reacting them with appropriate enzymes.

Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates. They have multiple simple sugars. Examples are starch , cellulose , and glycogen. They are generally large and often have a complex branched connectivity. Because of their size, polysaccharides are not water-soluble, but their many hydroxy groups become hydrated individually when exposed to water, and some polysaccharides form thick colloidal dispersions when heated in water.

It successfully discriminated three brands of orange juice beverage. Lignin is a complex polyphenolic macromolecule composed mainly of beta-O4-aryl linkages.

After cellulose, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer and is one of the primary structural components of most plants. It contains subunits derived from p -coumaryl alcohol , coniferyl alcohol , and sinapyl alcohol [15] and is unusual among biomolecules in that it is racemic.

The lack of optical activity is due to the polymerization of lignin which occurs via free radical coupling reactions in which there is no preference for either configuration at a chiral center. Lipids oleaginous are chiefly fatty acid esters , and are the basic building blocks of biological membranes. Another biological role is energy storage e. Most lipids consist of a polar or hydrophilic head typically glycerol and one to three non polar or hydrophobic fatty acid tails, and therefore they are amphiphilic.

Fatty acids consist of unbranched chains of carbon atoms that are connected by single bonds alone saturated fatty acids or by both single and double bonds unsaturated fatty acids. The chains are usually carbon groups long, but it is always an even number. Other lipids include prostaglandins and leukotrienes which are both carbon fatty acyl units synthesized from arachidonic acid. They are also known as fatty acids. Amino acids contain both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups.

In biochemistry , the term amino acid is used when referring to those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon, plus proline which is not actually an amino acid. Modified amino acids are sometimes observed in proteins; this is usually the result of enzymatic modification after translation protein synthesis.

For example, phosphorylation of serine by kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatases is an important control mechanism in the cell cycle. Only two amino acids other than the standard twenty are known to be incorporated into proteins during translation, in certain organisms:. Besides those used in protein synthesis , other biologically important amino acids include carnitine used in lipid transport within a cell , ornithine , GABA and taurine. The particular series of amino acids that form a protein is known as that protein's primary structure.

This sequence is determined by the genetic makeup of the individual. It specifies the order of side-chain groups along the linear polypeptide "backbone". Proteins have two types of well-classified, frequently occurring elements of local structure defined by a particular pattern of hydrogen bonds along the backbone: alpha helix and beta sheet. Their number and arrangement is called the secondary structure of the protein. The spiral has about 3. Beta pleated sheets are formed by backbone hydrogen bonds between individual beta strands each of which is in an "extended", or fully stretched-out, conformation.

The strands may lie parallel or antiparallel to each other, and the side-chain direction alternates above and below the sheet. Hemoglobin contains only helices, natural silk is formed of beta pleated sheets, and many enzymes have a pattern of alternating helices and beta-strands. The secondary-structure elements are connected by "loop" or "coil" regions of non-repetitive conformation, which are sometimes quite mobile or disordered but usually adopt a well-defined, stable arrangement.

The overall, compact, 3D structure of a protein is termed its tertiary structure or its "fold". It is formed as result of various attractive forces like hydrogen bonding , disulfide bridges , hydrophobic interactions , hydrophilic interactions, van der Waals force etc. When two or more polypeptide chains either of identical or of different sequence cluster to form a protein, quaternary structure of protein is formed.

Quaternary structure is an attribute of polymeric same-sequence chains or heteromeric different-sequence chains proteins like hemoglobin , which consists of two "alpha" and two "beta" polypeptide chains. An apoenzyme or, generally, an apoprotein is the protein without any small-molecule cofactors, substrates, or inhibitors bound.

It is often important as an inactive storage, transport, or secretory form of a protein. This is required, for instance, to protect the secretory cell from the activity of that protein.

Apoenzymes become active enzymes on addition of a cofactor. Cofactors can be either inorganic e. Organic cofactors can be either prosthetic groups , which are tightly bound to an enzyme, or coenzymes , which are released from the enzyme's active site during the reaction.

Isoenzymes , or isozymes, are multiple forms of an enzyme, with slightly different protein sequence and closely similar but usually not identical functions. They are either products of different genes , or else different products of alternative splicing. They may either be produced in different organs or cell types to perform the same function, or several isoenzymes may be produced in the same cell type under differential regulation to suit the needs of changing development or environment.

LDH lactate dehydrogenase has multiple isozymes, while fetal hemoglobin is an example of a developmentally regulated isoform of a non-enzymatic protein. The relative levels of isoenzymes in blood can be used to diagnose problems in the organ of secretion.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Molecule that is produced by a living organism. Index Outline. Main articles: Nucleosides and Nucleotides.

Main articles: DNA and Nucleic acid structure. Main articles: Protein structure , Protein primary structure , Protein secondary structure , Protein tertiary structure , and Protein quaternary structure. Biology portal. Treatise on Basic Philosophy , vol.

Nanobiosensors for Biomolecular Targeting. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Farlex, Inc. Accessed June 27, Molecular Insights into the Living Process. IV, Le Discours philosophique. Presses Universitaires de France. Pacific Grove: Brooks Cole. New York: Garland Science. Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure. Journal of Nutrition : — Horton The Carbohydrates. San Diego: Academic Press. Freudenberg; A. Nash, eds. Constitution and Biosynthesis of Lignin. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Advances in Protein Chemistry.


All compounds can be classified in two broad categories - -- organic and inorganic compounds. Since hydrogen has only one electron, it can form only single bonds. Each small organic molecule can be a unit of a large organic molecule called a macromolecule. Proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen N. The body also needs trace amounts of other elements such as calcium, potassium, and sulfur for proper functioning of muscles, nerves, etc.

Food provides the body with the nutrients it needs to survive. Many of these critical nutrients are biological macromolecules, or large molecules, necessary for life. These macromolecules polymers are built from different combinations of smaller organic molecules monomers. What specific types of biological macromolecules do living things require? How are these molecules formed? What functions do they serve?

NCBI Bookshelf. Opportunities in Biology. All biological functions depend on events that occur at the molecular level. These events are directed, modulated, or detected by complex biological machines, which are themselves large molecules or clusters of molecules. Included are proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and complexes of them.

elements and macromolecules in organisms pdf

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Structure and function

Macromolecules: Organic Polymers

Cells are made of many complex molecules called macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids RNA and DNA , carbohydrates, and lipids. The macromolecules are a subset of organic molecules any carbon-containing liquid, solid, or gas that are especially important for life. The fundamental component for all of these macromolecules is carbon. Individual carbon atoms have an incomplete outermost electron shell. With an atomic number of 6 six electrons and six protons , the first two electrons fill the inner shell, leaving four in the second shell. Therefore, carbon atoms can form up to four covalent bonds with other atoms to satisfy the octet rule.

Nutrients are the molecules that living organisms require for survival and growth but that animals and plants cannot synthesize themselves. Animals obtain nutrients by consuming food, while plants pull nutrients from soil. Many critical nutrients are biological macromolecules. Staudinger was the first to propose that many large biological molecules are built by covalently linking smaller biological molecules together. Biological macromolecules play a critical role in cell structure and function. Most but not all biological macromolecules are polymers, which are any molecules constructed by linking together many smaller molecules, called monomers.

A macromolecule is a very large molecule , such as a protein. They are composed of thousands of covalently bonded atoms. Many macromolecules are the polymerization of smaller molecules called monomers. The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers nucleic acids , proteins, and carbohydrates and large non-polymeric molecules such as lipids and macrocycles.

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