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Prostitution and Beyond is an edited volume that discusses a spectrum of issues that are pertinent to sex workers in India. These issues have been dealt with on various research platforms before. By collectively presenting these diverse research conclusions, this volume explores the broader interconnectivity of issues that affect women in prostitution. Its objective is to reach a wider audience consisting of both women who are initiated, and those as yet uninitiated into prostitution.
George , and also known as Madras Province , was an administrative subdivision presidency of British India. At its greatest extent, the presidency included most of southern India , including the whole of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh , and parts of Tamil Nadu , Kerala , Karnataka , Telangana , Odisha and the union territory of Lakshadweep.
The city of Madras was the winter capital of the Presidency and Ootacamund or Ooty, the summer capital. The Island of Ceylon was a part of Madras Presidency from to when it was created a Crown colony. Madras Presidency was neighboured by the Kingdom of Mysore on the northwest, Kingdom of Cochin on the southwest, and the Kingdom of Hyderabad on the north.
In , the English East India Company purchased the village of Madraspatnam and one year later it established the Agency of Fort St George , precursor of the Madras Presidency, although there had been Company factories at Machilipatnam and Armagon since the very early s. The agency was upgraded to a Presidency in before once more reverting to its previous status in In , it was re-elevated to a Presidency and Elihu Yale was appointed as president.
Thereafter, the head of the area was styled "Governor" rather than "President" and became subordinate to the Governor-General in Calcutta , a title that would persist until Judicial, legislative and executive powers rested with the Governor who was assisted by a Council whose constitution was modified by reforms enacted in , , and Regular elections were conducted in Madras up to the outbreak of the Second World War in By , the province comprised twenty-two districts, each under a District Collector , and it was further sub-divided into taluks and firqas with villages making up the smallest unit of administration.
Following the Montagu—Chelmsford Reforms of , Madras was the first province of British India to implement a system of dyarchy , and thereafter its Governor ruled alongside a prime minister. In the early decades of the 20th century, many significant contributors to the Indian independence movement came from Madras.
Madras was later admitted as Madras State , a state of the Indian Union at the inauguration of the Republic of India on 26 January The discovery of dolmens from this portion of the subcontinent shows inhabitation as early as the Stone Age. Following the decline of the Pandyas and the Cholas, the country was conquered by a little known race of people called the Kalabhras. Following the conquest of Madurai by Malik Kafur in , there was a brief lull when both culture and civilisation began to deteriorate.
The Tamil and Telugu territories recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire , founded in Following the empire's demise, the country was split amongst numerous sultans, polygars and European trading companies.
On 31 December , Queen Elizabeth I of England — granted a group of English merchants a charter to establish a joint-stock company which became known as the East India Company. The first of these were built at Surat on the west coast  and at Masulipatam on the country's eastern seaboard. In , another factory was established at Armagon, a few miles to the south, whereupon both the factories came under the supervision of an agency based at Machilipatam. The problem was compounded when the Sultan of Golconda started harassing the local officers.
An agency was created to govern the new settlement, and the factor Andrew Cogan of Masulipatnam was appointed as its first Agent. At the end of Greenhill's term in , Fort St George was elevated to a Presidency, independent of Bantam  and under the leadership of the first president, Aaron Baker — In , control of all the factories in Bengal was given to Madras, when the English occupied the nearby village of Triplicane.
The White Town was confined inside the walls of Fort St. George and the Black Town outside of it. The Black Town later came to be known as George Town. During the early years of the Madras Presidency, the English were repeatedly attacked by the Mughals, the Marathas and the Nawabs of Golkonda and the Carnatic region.
The last quarter of the 18th century was a period of rapid expansion. Successful wars against Tipu Sultan —99 , Velu Thampi, Polygars and Ceylon added vast areas of land and contributed to the exponential growth of the Presidency. Newly conquered Ceylon formed part of the Madras Presidency between and The period also witnessed a number of rebellions starting with the Vellore Mutiny. The Madras Presidency annexed the kingdom of Mysore in on allegations of maladministration  and restored it to Chamaraja Wodeyar —94 , the grandson and heir of the deposed Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar — in Thanjavur was annexed in , following the death of Shivaji II — who left no male heir.
In , under the terms of Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Madras Presidency, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. Legislative powers were given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act Sadagopacharlu —63 was the first Indian to be appointed to the council. A number of roads, railways, dams and canals were constructed during this period.
Two large famines occurred in Madras during this period, the Great Famine of —78 and the Indian famine of — These famines and alleged partiality shown by the government in handling the Chingleput Ryots' Case and the Salem riots trial caused discontent among the population.
A strong sense of national awakening emerged in the Madras Presidency in the later half of the 19th century. The first political organisation in the province, the Madras Native Association, was established by Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty on 26 February Of the 72 delegates who participated in the first session of the Indian National Congress at Bombay in December , 22 hailed from the Madras Presidency. The third session of the Indian National Congress was held in Madras in December  and was a huge success attended by delegates from the province.
Madam Blavatsky and Colonel H. Olcott moved the headquarters of the Theosophical Society to Adyar in Nationalistic newspapers such as The Hindu , the Swadesamitran and the Mathrubhumi actively endorsed the campaign for independence. Kalyanasundaram and B. A dyarchy was created in Madras Presidency in as per the Montagu—Chelmsford Reforms with provisions made for elections in the presidency.
Following the first elections held in November , the Justice Party , an organisation established in to campaign for increased representation of non-Brahmins in the administration, came to power. Subbarayalu Reddiar became the first Chief Minister of the Madras Presidency but resigned soon after due to declining health and was replaced by P.
Reddy resigned from primary membership and formed a splinter group allied with the opposition Swarajists. A motion of no-confidence was proposed against Ramarayaningar's government on 27 November , but was defeated 65— Ramarayaningar remained in power until November The enactment in August of the first communal Government Order G. In the following elections of the Justice Party lost.
However, as no party was able to obtain a clear majority, the Governor, Lord Goschen , set up a cross-party government under the leadership of P. Subbarayan and nominated its supporting members. Munuswamy Naidu became Chief Minister. Fearing a no-confidence motion against him, Munuswamy Naidu resigned in November and the Raja of Bobbili was appointed Chief Minister in his place.
During the s and s, an Anti-Brahmin movement emerged in the Madras Presidency. It was launched by E. Ramaswamy who, unhappy with the principles and policies of the Brahmin leadership of the provincial Congress, left the party to form the Self-Respect Movement.
Periyar, as he was alternatively known, criticised Brahmins , Hinduism , and Hindu superstitions in periodicals and newspapers such as Viduthalai and Justice. He also participated in the Vaikom Satyagraha , which campaigned for the right of untouchables in Travancore to enter temples. In , the Indian National Congress was elected to power in the Presidency of Madras for the first time. He successfully enacted the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act  and introduced both prohibition  and sales taxes in the Madras Presidency.
His rule is largely remembered for the use of Hindi being made compulsory in educational institutions, a measure which made him highly unpopular as a politician   and sparked widespread Anti-Hindi agitations , which led to violence in some places.
Over 1, men, women, and children were jailed for their participation in such Anti-Hindi agitations  while Thalamuthu and Natarasan died during the protests. The Governor of Madras, Sir Arthur Hope , took over the administration and the unpopular law was eventually repealed by him on 21 February Most Congressional leadership and erstwhile ministers were arrested in , as a result of their participation in the Quit India movement. He was succeeded by O.
Ramaswamy Reddiyar , who became the first Chief Minister of Madras state when India gained independence on 15 August At its greatest extent, the Madras Presidency included much of southern India. The presidency had its winter capital at Madras and summer capital at Ootacamund.
In , the Madras Presidency underwent its first census, which returned a population of 13,, A second census conducted between and recorded a population of 13,,, an increase of only , over 15 years. The first quinquennial population enumeration took place from until It returned a population of 22,, Subsequent enumerations were made in —52, —57, —62, and — The population of Madras Presidency was tallied at 22,,, 24,, in —62 and 26,, in — The last census of British India held in counted a population of 49,, for the Madras Presidency.
Tamil was spoken in the southern districts of the Presidency from a few miles north of Madras city as far west as the Nilgiri hills and Western Ghats. It was also the link language for the Presidency and the official language of British India in which all government proceedings and court hearings were conducted. According to the census, there were 14,, people who spoke Tamil, 11,, people who spoke Telugu, 2,, people who spoke Malayalam, 1,, spoke Canarese or Kannada, , people spoke Oriya and 29, people spoke Tulu.
In , the population breakdown was: Hindus 37,, , Muslims 2,, , and Christians 1,, By the time of India's independence in , Madras had an estimated population of 49,, Hindus, 3,, Muslims and 2,, Christians . The main Hindu denominations were Saivite , Vaishnavite and Lingayat. Of the Hindu temples, the largest and most important were the Venkateswara temple at Thirupathi , the Brihadeeswarar temple at Tanjore , the Meenakshi Amman temple at Madurai , the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam , the Krishna temple at Udupi and the Padmanabhaswamy temple in the princely state of Travancore.
Islam was brought to the southern part of India by Arab traders although most converts were made from the 14th century onwards, when Malik Kafur conquered Madurai. Nagore was the holiest city for the Muslims of the Madras Presidency.
The presidency also had one of the oldest Christian populations in India. Branches of the Syrian church, contrary to historical evidence, are popularly believed to have been instituted by St. Until the early years of the 20th century, the Pallar , Paraiyar , Sakkiliar , Pulayar , Madiga , Izhava and Holeya Hindu communities were regarded as untouchable and were not allowed inside Hindu temples.
However, along with the emancipation of Indian women and removal of social evils, untouchability was slowly eradicated through legislation and social reform. The Raja of Bobbili who served the Premier from to , appointed untouchables to temple administration boards all over the presidency.
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This edition was created and published by Global Grey GlobalGrey Get more free ebooks at globalgreyebooks. Omens 2. Animal Superstitions 3. The Evil Eye 4. Snake Worship 5. Vows, Votive And Other Offerings 6. Charms 7.
Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representat ives.
But they are also found in significant numbers in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Iyengars are Pancha Dravida Brahmins. Their mother tongue can be either Tamil, Kannada or Telugu.
Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
В ее обязанности в качестве главного криптографа входило поддерживать в шифровалке мирную атмосферу - воспитывать. Особенно таких, как Хейл, - зеленых и наивных. Сьюзан посмотрела на него и подумала о том, как жаль, что этот человек, талантливый и очень ценный для АНБ, не понимает важности дела, которым занимается агентство.
ИСТЕКШЕЕ ВРЕМЯ: 15:17:21 - Пятнадцать часов семнадцать минут? - Он не верил своим глазам. - Это невозможно. Он перезагрузил монитор, надеясь, что все дело в каком-то мелком сбое.
Старик внимательно разглядывал подозрительного посетителя. Беккер перешел чуть ли не на шепот: - Я здесь, чтобы узнать, не нужно ли вам чего-нибудь. - Скажем, принести пару таблеток валиума. Наконец канадец опомнился. - Из консульства? - Его тон заметно смягчился.
ГЛАВА 15 Сьюзан Флетчер расположилась за компьютерным терминалом Третьего узла. Этот узел представлял собой звуконепроницаемую уединенную камеру, расположенную неподалеку от главного зала. Двухдюймовое искривленное стекло односторонней видимости открывало перед криптографами панораму зала, не позволяя увидеть камеру снаружи.
В понедельник я проверю твою машину. А пока сваливай-ка ты отсюда домой. Сегодня же суббота. Найди себе какого-нибудь парня да развлекись с ним как следует. Она снова вздохнула.
Очевидно, директор что-то скрывает, но Бринкерхоффу платили за то, чтобы он помогал, а не задавал вопросы. Фонтейн давно всем доказал, что близко к сердцу принимает интересы сотрудников. Если, помогая ему, нужно закрыть на что-то глаза, то так тому и .
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