File Name: history of political thought by mukherjee and ramaswamy creator.zip
His life sketch is presented as a precursor to his intellectual enterprise. Themes such as dialectical materialism, materialistic interpretation of history, the theory of surplus value, the theory of class struggle, dictatorship of the proletariat, classless and stateless society, analysis of capitalism, and nature of communist society have been examined maximally.
Dissecting from those purveyors, the study gives an evaluation of Marxist political thought. The first of these we can accept, without accepting the second. Marx was a radical activist whose political theory is collectively known as Marxism. It is focus on the economic change in the society as a result of the contradictions inherent in the various modes of production that existed historically in the society.
The first announcement of Marx nontraditional way of seeing things appeared in the German Ideology in He has established the fact that conflict is inherent in the society and the basis for this conflict is the economic conditions. Although Hegel found a correlation between ideas and conflict and social change, Marx identifies class in material terms, as the force behind social change.
For instance, a conflict between the ownership class that provides the means for production and the non-ownership class that provides labour for production. It is the provision of means of production in form of capital that gives Marx his term of Capitalism. Marx accuses capitalism of creating unendurable poverty in the society in spite of abundant wealth. Capitalist uses labourers maximally but do not appropriate to labour its real value.
This is evidence of sowing seeds of self-destruction by the capitalist. But capitalism will not go on its own volition, because the intention of the bourgeois class is to perpetuate themselves and continue to exploit the disadvantaged working class or proletariat. The contradictions inherent in capitalism will be full but capitalism will not go on its own, the working class the world over must gain consciousness of the fact that they are exploited, suppressed and subjugated under capitalism.
Marx argues extensively against the exploitation of the proletariat by the capitalist. This exploitation is more brutal in the appropriation of surplus value and the exchange value between the owners of means of production and the working class. It is the disciplined investigation of political problems which have over the centuries attracted inquiries from philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, St Augustine, Machiavelli, Karl Marx and many others Sabine and Thorson, Theoretical Framework Theoretical framework or conceptual framework is a type of intermediate theory that attempts to connect to all aspects of inquiry.
Marxism is a set of ideas of Karl Marx and his friend Frederick Engels. Marxism also believed that antagonism between the two classes in the capitalist system is an organic part of class struggle.
The method of Marxist analysis of the progression of history is known as dialectical materialism. This is an enterprise that embraces broad social phenomena. Marxism is theory of society and its progression. It embraces broad social phenomena. It talks about progress of society in terms of matter and dialectics. It is through this progress of society that Marx hopes that revolution and communism are possible to introduce new social order.
Even though Marx is the larger contributor to Marxist theory he is not the sole owner of the theory. Other contributors to the theory include V. Marxism even came to the fore as a theory of society after the death of Karl Marx.
Therefore the theory can be applied here. He was a German philosopher, sociologist, economist and historian. He was born in Trier in the Rhineland, to a Jewish Catholic parents who had converted to nominal Protestantism in order to escape legal restrictions.
He was educated at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin. Marx received a doctorate from the University of Jena in for a thesis on Epicurus and Democritus.
This paper was suppressed in , and decided to continue the struggle against Prussian autocracy from Paris, thus beginning a life-long exile. Marx was an activist. While he was in Paris , Marx became friend with Frederick Engel, and they began what today is regarded as the most famous literary partnership in history. Before his death in , he lived the rest of his life in London, supported financially by his friend Engels.
He lived a life of poverty that was complicated by his own notions of respectability worsened by chronic illness, and saddened by the death of three children. He began his nontraditional view of society with dialectical materialism. It is soul of Marxism. Marx borrowed his concept of dialectics from J. F Hegel — and that of materialism from Feuerbach — Dialectics is a method of arriving at the truth by discussion after presenting contradictory propositions while materialism is a school of philosophy that believes that the knowledge of this world is knowable through matter life.
Originally Hegel used dialectics to explain historical forces responsible for the evolution of the state, while Marx applied dialectics to show the process of development of society toward communism. In this way, Marx used dialectical materialism to establish his Marxist philosophy.
He regards nature as a connected and integral whole. Nature is not static but constantly in motion; it is subject to change and the change is continuous. He further preconized that there is constant conflict between negative and positive forces. Contradiction is inherent in all things, and this is the moving principle of the world. It is in the opinion of Marx also that the changes in dialectics are never smooth and gradual but rapid.
Quantitative change is gradual while qualitative change is abrupt. Religion to Marx, at any point in time in history of society is the prevailing ideology of the ruling class who used it to maintain the status quo. Hence, Marx also used dialectical materialism to suggest a new and more far-reaching revolution.
Dialectics of Marx was applied in his materialistic interpretation of history. History to Marx is the struggle between two classes over matter life. This is based on economic interpretation of history, hence the major phenomena of society are determined by economic conditions — economic determinism.
Marx and Engels developed the materialistic conception of history to explain the law of human development. The underlying assumption of the materialistic conception was the role played by economic factors, which formed the base. Marx rejected the Hegelian conception of idea. His interpretation of history was based on materialism. He stated that, change and development of society takes place according to objective laws, not according to divine laws; objective laws relate to the material world.
The progress of society is determined by the material conditions of society. The material condition of society at any historical epoch is the product of the prevailing mode of production and the corresponding relations of people in terms of production exchange and distribution.
This is what also decides the nature of society and polity; legal, political and other structures are built on this foundation. The belief system and the entire national life are conditioned by the material conditions. To bring about any substantial change in the society, one must change the material foundation of the society.
Who owns the means of production is determined by the prevailing mode of production, hence, Marx contended, it is the mode of production that determines the material conditions.
In this way, it creates revolutionary situation. By resorting to historical facts, Marx pointed to the fact of revolutionary situations since the primitive communalism to the present capitalist system. Based on the analysis above, Marx predicted revolution of the labouring class proletariat or non- owners in the present capitalist system against the bourgeoisie ownership class. A change in the relations of production will call for a change in the whole social system and political order.
Historically, in the primitive communal system the means of production were socially owned. In the slave system the slave and master classes existed, slave owners were the owners of means of production. In the feudal system feudal lords owned means of production, the Lord and serf classes were there.
Feudal lords purchased the labour of the serf because they were the owners of means of production. The industrial revolution changed the economic system and political scene of the society. Capitalist bourgeois class now owns the means of production and exploits the working proletariat class. The contradictions inherent in this present mode of production will also create more conditions for revolution that will destroy capitalism.
Since communism is to negate from the demise of capitalism, Marx took his time to also analyze capitalism.
In Capital volume 2: The Circulation of Capital discusses in vivid terms the process of capitalist accumulation of capital and how through capital surplus value, which is the height of capitalist injustice to labour, is made and from surplus value more capital is accumulated.
Capitalism arises in the market of means of production and labour, where the worker sells his labour power to the ownership of means of production. The basis of capitalism is wage labour. Capitalism also means private ownership of means of production. Means of production is very crucial to production yet has been restricted to a few.
However, capitalism still maintains its evils such as alienation of labour, eviction of peasants from their land, creation of poverty in the midst of abundant, exploitation of the worker and creation of the proletariat.
Capitalism has also divided the society into two hostile camps; the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
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Views 23 Downloads 0 File size KB. Western Political Thought Second Edition5. Shveta Dhaliwal and the same has not been submitted anywhere for any purposes whatsoever. Shveta Dhaliwal for inspiring us and guiding us during the course of this project work. We also extend our sincere thanks to our parents and friends for the inspiration and guidance given to us from time to time during the progress of this project work.
Views 25 Downloads 0 File size KB. Western Political Thought Second Edition5. Shveta Dhaliwal and the same has not been submitted anywhere for any purposes whatsoever. Shveta Dhaliwal for inspiring us and guiding us during the course of this project work. We also extend our sincere thanks to our parents and friends for the inspiration and guidance given to us from time to time during the progress of this project work.
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Thinkers belonging to diverse intellectual persuasions opened up refreshingly new ways of envisaging the self, public life and possibilities of crafting a new world and these endeavors offer a window to understand the complex tapestry of political life. Greek Political Philosophy. Jump to Content. Header Menu. Search form Search. Undergraduate Postgraduate Postgraduate Diploma M. Research Areas Internships Projects Publications.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. This lucidly written text, in its second edition, continues to provide a comprehensive study of the classical political tradition from Plato to Marx. The book elucidates the fascinating evolution of the history of political ideas, through the works of thirteen key political thinkers -- which includes Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hegel and Marx.
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The argument in the Republic was conducted in a single room among Socrates. Your email address will not be published. A team of dedicated professionals are at work to help you! He excelled in the fields of astrology, geometry and was acquainted with the doctrines of Greek leaders. Plato explains cyclical transformations of these regimes in light of the changes in the value structure, thereby stressing the significance of values and ideas on political makeover. Hello friends we hope you are bracing for the upcoming Civil Services Prelim Examination. Jowet rightly pronounced that Plato as father of philosophy, politics and literary idealism.
Приоткрыв дрожащие губы, она попыталась что-то сказать, но слов не последовало. Не спуская со Стратмора ледяного взгляда, Сьюзан сделала шаг вперед и протянула к нему руку с зажатым в ней предметом. Стратмор был почти уверен, что в руке Сьюзан сжимала беретту, нацеленную ему в живот, но пистолет лежал на полу, стиснутый в пальцах Хейла. Предмет, который она держала, был гораздо меньшего размера. Стратмор опустил глаза и тут же все понял.
Это как раз было ее специальностью. - Дело в том, что это и есть ключ. Энсей Танкадо дразнит нас, заставляя искать ключ в считанные минуты. И при этом подбрасывает подсказки, которые нелегко распознать. - Абсурд! - отрезал Джабба.
Ответа не последовало. Сьюзан спустилась по лестнице на несколько ступенек. Горячий воздух снизу задувал под юбку.
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