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Theory X And Theory Y Of Douglas Mcgregor Pdf

theory x and theory y of douglas mcgregor pdf

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Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories

In , Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. View All Articles. Similar Articles Under - Motivation. To Know more, click on About Us.

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible.

He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment or culture where workers can show and develop their creativity. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff!

Theory X and Theory Y

McGregor presented and explained the two theories in what is considered a classic work of management science, his book The Human Side of Enterprise. Theory X and Theory Y represent two basic assumptions about the human capacity for and relationship to work. Theory X hinges on the assumption that humans are inherently work-averse. The workplace is therefore authoritarian in nature, with top-down pressure serving as the primary mechanism of motivation. Under Theory X, employees are assumed to have little ambition and avoid responsibility, preferring a secure, base work environment. Therefore, they require constant supervision and coercion to maintain productivity.

These theories are based on the premise that management has to assemble all the factors of production, including human beings, to get the work done. McGregor believed that management can use either of the needs to motivate his employees, as grouped under theory X and theory Y. But however, the theory Y yields better results than the theory X, how? Theory X: Theory X relies on the authoritarian style of management, where the managers are required to give instructions and keep a close check on each employee. As it is assumed, the employees are not motivated, and they dislike working. This theory is based on the following assumptions:.

theory x and theory y of douglas mcgregor pdf

Theory X and Theory Y

Motivation - McGregor (Theory X & Theory Y)

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Theory X and Theory Y

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Kopelman and David J. Kopelman , David J. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed.

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical research is, in part, attributable to the lack of validated measures. Surveys completed by working adults provide the present data. Convergent and discriminant validities are examined through correlational and regression analyses with measures of proximal, distal, and unrelated constructs.


DOUGLAS MCGREGOR'S THEORY X AND THEORY Y. DOUGLAS It was in that Douglas McGregor first proposed the concept of Theory X and Theory Y in 'The Human Side of nazarethsr.org (Accessed: 21 July ).


Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas. But there are times when management is less about leadership and more about the staunch enforcement of rules and micromanagement of production. These differing management styles have been coined in the academic management community as Theory X and Theory Y.

Количество нейтронов. Техника извлечения.  - Она пробежала глазами таблицу.

Он не хотел, чтобы оно попало в АНБ. Но чего еще можно было ждать от Танкадо - что он сохранит кольцо для них, будучи уверенным в том, что они-то его и убили. И все же Сьюзан не могла поверить, что Танкадо допустил бы. Ведь он был пацифистом и не стремился к разрушению.

При мысли о том, что Хейл позволил себе прикоснуться к Сьюзан, кровь закипела в его жилах, но он помнил, что должен сохранять ясную голову, Стратмор с горечью признал, что сам отчасти виноват в случившемся: ведь именно он направил Сьюзан в Третий узел. Однако он умел анализировать свои эмоции и не собирался позволить им отразиться на решении проблемы Цифровой крепости. Он заместитель директора Агентства национальной безопасности, а сегодня все, что он делает, важно, как .

Если Стратмор обошел фильтры, я вызываю службу безопасности. Если я ошиблась, то немедленно ухожу, а ты можешь хоть с головы до ног обмазать вареньем свою Кармен Хуэрту.  - Мидж зло посмотрела на него и протянула руку.  - Давай ключ.

Разумеется. Но мне она неизвестна. - Видите ли, ситуация не столь проста.

Или это ненависть. Они буквально пожирали ее тело. Новая волна паники охватила Сьюзан. Хейл всей тяжестью своего тела придавил ее ноги, холодно следя за каждым ее движением. В сознании Сьюзан промелькнуло все то, что она читала о приемах самозащиты.

 Сьюзан, - наконец произнес он еле слышно.

4 Comments

  1. Lateralus

    22.04.2021 at 09:41
    Reply

    Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor). Douglas McGregor in his book, “​The Human Side of Enterprise” published in has examined theories on.

  2. Felcer

    23.04.2021 at 02:00
    Reply

    DOUGLAS MCGREGOR: THEORY X AND THEORY Y. Thinker » INTRODUCTION. Douglas McGregor () followed a mostly academic career.

  3. Ofirifdou

    28.04.2021 at 21:21
    Reply

    PDF | Leadership style and organizational performance have been researched on the impact on organizational performance of Theory X and Theory Y type McGregor's seminal work with Theory X and Theory Y. In this study, Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y: Toward a Construct-Valid Measure.

  4. Bernard P.

    30.04.2021 at 04:54
    Reply

    PDF | Douglas McGregor's landmark book, The Human Side of Enterprise, changed the path of management thinking and practice by.

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