File Name: fossil fuel and climate change .zip
Climate Accountability Institute releases treasure trove of data on fossil fuel company operational and product-related emissions. Update 8 October Accounting for carbon and methane emissions, Top Twenty investor-owned and state-owned oil, gas, and coal companies CAI has updated all Carbon Majors to activity data, and we post a sample of the results and individual worksheets below:.
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects. Due to massive price drops, wind power and solar photovoltaics PV are increasingly out-competing oil, gas and coal  though these require energy storage and improved electrical grids.
Once that low-emission energy is available, transport and heating can shift to these mostly electric sources. Mitigation of climate change may also be achieved by reforestation and forest preservation  and the enhancement of carbon sinks. Methane emissions, which have a high short-term impact, can be targetted by reductions in cattle and more generally by reducing meat consumption.
Political and economical responses include carbon taxes and other emission pricing models, abolishing fossil fuel subsidies , simplified regulations for the integration of low-carbon energy and divestment from fossil fuel finance. With the Special Report on Global Warming of 1. The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions does not appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.
The UNFCCC aims to stabilize greenhouse gas GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion. The IPCC works with the concept of a fixed carbon emissions budget. If emissions remain on the current level of 42 Gt CO 2 , the carbon budget for 1.
As of the year many scientists think that if emissions will be reduced to zero, the warming will stop in 10 - 20 years. This is very different from the scientific opinion before. The reason is that previous models did not take into account that possibility. CO 2 emissions by fuel type . Their global warming potential GWP depends on their lifetime in the atmosphere.
Estimations largely depend on the ability of oceans and land sinks to absorb GHGs. The risk of feedback effects in global warming leads to high uncertainties in the determination of GWP values. GHG emissions are measured in CO 2 equivalents. Short-lived climate pollutants SLCPs persist in the atmosphere for a period ranging from days to 15 years as compared to carbon dioxide which can remain in the atmosphere for millennia. Cutting SLCPs may also reduce the rate of global warming and the projected Arctic warming by two-thirds.
Emissions in were estimated at It is estimated that the global warming potential of N 2 O over years is times greater than CO 2. They are used by switchgear in the power sector, semi-conducture manufacture, aluminium production and a large unknown source of SF 6.
Projections of future greenhouse gas emissions are highly uncertain. As the cost of reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector appears to be lower than in other sectors, such as in the transportation sector, the electricity sector may deliver the largest proportional carbon reductions under an economically efficient climate policy.
Economic tools can be useful in designing climate change mitigation policies. Methane emissions may be reduced by controlling fugitive emissions from oil and gas production and controlling emissions from coal mining. Black carbon emissions may be mitigated by upgrading coke ovens, installing particulate filters on diesel-based engines and minimizing open burning of biomass. Continued phase down of manufacture and use of hydroflourocarbons HFCs under the Montreal Protocol will help reduce HFC emissions and concurrently improve the energy efficiency of appliances that use HFCs like air conditioners, freezers and refrigerators.
Other frequently discussed efficiency means include public transport, increasing fuel economy in automobiles which includes the use of electric hybrids , charging plug-in hybrids and electric cars by low-carbon electricity , making individual changes , and changing business practices. Replacing gasoline and diesel vehicles with electric means their emissions would be displaced away from street level, where they cause illness.
Another consideration is how future socioeconomic development proceeds. As most greenhouse gas emissions are due to fossil fuels, rapidly phasing out oil, gas and coal is critical. The global primary energy demand was , TWh in The primary energy demand in a low-carbon economy is difficult to determine. Motors of vehicles produce a lot of heat which is wasted. Electrification of all sectors and switching to renewable energy can lower the primary energy demand significantly.
On the other hand, storage requirements, energy density issues of batteries and reconversion to electricity lower the efficiency of renewable energy. Wind and sun can be sources for large amounts of low-carbon energy at competitive production costs. This can be tackled by extending grids over large areas with a sufficient capacity or by using energy storage. Electricity production by biogas and hydro power can follow the energy demand.
Regions in the higher northern and southern latitudes have the highest potential for wind power. Hydroelectricity plays a leading role in countries like Brazil, Norway and China.
Biogas plants can provide dispatchable electricity generation , and heat when needed. Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO 2 , but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO 2 back into new crops. How a fuel is produced, transported and processed has a significant impact on lifecycle emissions. Transporting fuels over long distances and excessive use of nitrogen fertilisers can reduce the emissions savings made by the same fuel compared to natural gas by between 15 and 50 per cent.
In most 1. On the other hand, nuclear power comes with environmental risks which could outweigh the benefits. Apart from nuclear accidents , the disposal of radioactive waste can cause damage and costs over more than one million years. Separated plutonium could be used for nuclear weapons. As of [update] the cost of extending nuclear power plant lifetimes is competitive with other electricity generation technologies, including new solar and wind projects.
Nuclear fusion research, in the form of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is underway but fusion is not likely to be commercially widespread before Fossil fuel may be phased-out with carbon-neutral and carbon-negative pipeline and transportation fuels created with power to gas and gas to liquids technologies.
Natural gas, which is mostly methane , is viewed as a bridge fuel since it produces about half as much CO 2 as burning coal. Wind energy and photovoltaics can deliver large amounts of electric energy but not at any time and place. One approach is the conversation into storable forms of energy. This generally leads to losses in efficiency. A study by Imperial College London calculated the lowest levelised cost of different systems for mid-term and seasonal storage. For , a more significant role for Li-on and hydrogen is projected.
Long-distance power lines help to minimize storage requirements. A continental transmission network can smoothen local variations of wind energy. With a global grid, even photovoltaics could be available all day and night. HVDC is currently only used for point-to-point connections.
China has built many HVDC connections within the country and supports the idea of a global, intercontinental grid as a backbone system for the existing national AC grids. Instead of expanding grids and storage for more power, there are a variety of ways to affect the size and timing of electricity demand on the consumer side.
Identifying and shifting electrical loads can reduce power bills by taking advantage of lower off-peak rates and flatten demand peaks. Traditionally, the energy system has treated consumer demand as fixed and used centralised supply options to manage variable demand. Now, better data systems and emerging onsite storageand generation technologies can combine with advanced, automated demand control software to pro-actively manage demand and respond to energy market prices.
Time of use metering is a common way to motivate electricity users to reduce their peak load consumption. For instance, running dishwashers and laundry at night after the peak has passed, reduces electricity costs. Dynamic demand plans have devices passively shut off when stress is sensed on the electrical grid. This method may work very well with thermostats, when power on the grid sags a small amount, a low power temperature setting is automatically selected reducing the load on the grid.
For instance millions of refrigerators reduce their consumption when clouds pass over solar installations. Consumers need to have a smart meter in order for the utility to calculate credits. Demand response devices can receive all sorts of messages from the grid.
The message could be a request to use a low power mode similar to dynamic demand, to shut off entirely during a sudden failure on the grid, or notifications about the current and expected prices for power.
This allows electric cars to recharge at the least expensive rates independent of the time of day. Vehicle-to-grid uses a car's battery or fuel cell to supply the grid temporarily. Between a quarter and three-quarters of cars on the road by are forecast to be electric. Hydrogen can be a solution for long-distance transport by trucks and hydrogen-powered ships where batteries alone are too heavy. While being more expensive than battery powered cars, they can refuel much faster, offering higher ranges up to km.
When used for vehicles, more than twice as much energy is needed compared to a battery powered electric car. Although aviation biofuel is used somewhat, as of [update] decarbonisation of aviation by is claimed to be "really difficult". Generally, electrification of heating would only reduce GHG emissions if the electric power comes from low-carbon sources.
A fossil-fuel power station may only deliver 3 units of electrical energy for every 10 units of fuel energy released. Electrifying heating loads may also provide a flexible resource that can participate in demand response to integrate variable renewable resources into the grid.
It uses an electrically driven compressor to operate a refrigeration cycle that extracts heat energy from outdoor air and moves that heat to the space to be warmed. In the summer months, the cycle can be reversed for air conditioning. In areas with average winter temperatures well below freezing, ground source heat pumps are more efficient than air-source heat pumps. The high purchase price of a heat pump compared to resistance heaters may be offset when air conditioning is also needed.
Radiant heaters in households are cheap and widespread but less efficient than heat pumps. In areas like Norway, Brazil , and Quebec that have abundant hydroelectricity, electric heat and hot water are common.
Large scale hot water tanks can be used for demand-side management and store variable renewable energy over hours or days. Reducing energy use is seen as a key solution to the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. According to the International Energy Agency , improved energy efficiency in buildings , industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases.
Energy efficiency means using the least amount of energy to perform a task or the ability of a piece of equipment to use the least amount of energy to perform a task. To conserve energy or reduce electricity costs, individual consumers or businesses may deliberately purchase energy efficient products that use refrigerants with low global warming potential GWP or products that are ENERGY STAR certified.
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects. Due to massive price drops, wind power and solar photovoltaics PV are increasingly out-competing oil, gas and coal  though these require energy storage and improved electrical grids. Once that low-emission energy is available, transport and heating can shift to these mostly electric sources. Mitigation of climate change may also be achieved by reforestation and forest preservation  and the enhancement of carbon sinks. Methane emissions, which have a high short-term impact, can be targetted by reductions in cattle and more generally by reducing meat consumption. Political and economical responses include carbon taxes and other emission pricing models, abolishing fossil fuel subsidies , simplified regulations for the integration of low-carbon energy and divestment from fossil fuel finance. With the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.
Using the decision grid below changes the question. The usual question is “Does our use of fossil fuels cause climate change?” Ask this question instead: “What.
Kasting Much has been said and written about the probable effects of human activities on the Earth's climate. Without question, the concentrations of carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases that act to keep the planet warm--and therefore habitable--are increasing very rapidly, and governments around the world are rightfully concerned about what we need do about it. A wealth of information has been gathered on different aspects of the problem, and since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC has published a continuing series of reports that represent an unprecedented international consensus of scientific and economic thinking. Two general conclusions have been reached by most researchers who have looked carefully at the subject.
All emission estimates from the Inventory of U. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: — Larger image to save or print Greenhouse gases trap heat and make the planet warmer.
Не успел Стратмор ее остановить, как она скользнула в образовавшийся проем. Он попытался что-то сказать, но Сьюзан была полна решимости. Ей хотелось поскорее оказаться в Третьем узле, и она достаточно хорошо изучила своего шефа, чтобы знать: Стратмор никуда не уйдет, пока она не разыщет ключ, спрятанный где-то в компьютере Хейла. Ей почти удалось проскользнуть внутрь, и теперь она изо всех сил пыталась удержать стремившиеся захлопнуться створки, но на мгновение выпустила их из рук. Створки стали стремительно сближаться.
Я хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Ролдан сразу решил, что это подстава. Если он скажет да, его подвергнут большому штрафу, да к тому же заставят предоставить одну из лучших сопровождающих полицейскому комиссару на весь уик-энд за здорово живешь.
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