File Name: long term and short term financial instruments .zip
Figure 3 : Outline of financing activities according to the duration of the provision of capital. Financing is very important for companies in all countries of the world, but what is financing exactly? Why do companies need corporate finance? The nature and extent of the procured, abstract capital are shown on the liabilities side of the balance sheet in the items of equity and debt.
On the asset side of the balance sheet it can be seen what kind of goods were procured with the funds provided by the capital providers investment. As an example, if someone wants to start a business for the production of tennis balls, this person has to procure capital to purchase the raw materials for the production of tennis balls and to pay the staff for manufacturing.
Hence the necessity to make use of financial instruments arises. A classification of financing instruments can be carried out according to various criteria. With regard to the origin of capital, external and internal financing can be distinguished. Based on the different types of capital, instruments of financing can be assigned either to equity or debt financing.
Moreover, methods of funding can be classified by the purpose and the occasion of capital procurement, or by the maturity structure. When financing is subdivided in external and internal funding on the basis of the origin of the capital, a clear separation between the company on the one hand and the capital donors including the owners or shareholders on the other hand is required. Figure 1 presents an overview of financing instruments classified by origin of the capital.
In external financing capital flows to the company in form of equity or in form of borrowed capital. When an individual entrepreneur brings capital from his private assets in his business, it is a deposit. When several persons provide equity, they participate in a business by means of a deposit. This process is termed deposits financing or alternatively equity financing.
In the narrower sense, the concept of equity financing can be limited to the self-financing of legal persons or even further restricted to self-financing by means of issuance of equity securities stocks.
In all cases, the equity capital, which is usually provided for an indefinite period of time, shares in profit and loss of the business enterprise. Since it is affected first in case of loss it is alternatively denoted by liability or guarantee capital.
Credit financing is debt financing from outside; the capital is provided long-term, medium-term or short-term by the investor. Here a contractual agreement ensures that interest must be paid even in years of losses and that repayment of the loan has to be done within a contractually agreed period or at a fixed date. The systematization of financing activities according to the legal status of the investor leads to a subdivision of financing in equity and debt financing, depending on whether the financing measures affect the internal or external capital of a company.
Moreover, both equity and debt financing can occur as internal and external financing. While explaining the financing of the company or an organisation one must note the importance of the legal status of shareholders or owners. Shareholders appoint the CEO and board of directors who make the decision whether to invest the profit as an internal capital or pay dividends to shareholders.
Regardless of the decision of internal financing or borrowing outside, shareholders will be notified. In accordance with above mentioned, Shareholders have following rights:. The company will be studied by the borrowers in terms of their ability to pay back the loan or the debt. The payments to borrower have an interest rate that varies from company to company. Generally, the bigger organizations prefer funding the company, the new projects internally via re investing profits or issuing new shares.
Equity financing comprises deposit funding and self-financing. In both cases, a company is supplied with additional equity capital. In case of deposit funding, equity capital is supplied from outside by creation of extended or new shareholder rights. As opposed to this, self-financing provides equity through dividend payouts.
Debt financing includes external credit financing and internal financing from the provisions in particular from long-term pension provisions. Provisions are rated among borrowed capital, since they are formed due to deferred but uncertain payment obligations. Mezzanine capital is a form of external financing that combines certain idealized characteristics of equity capital with specific ideal-typical features of borrowed capital. Figure 2 does not only show an arrangement of financing procedures according to the legal position of the investor, but additionally highlights the relationships to the classification of financing processes on the basis of the origin of capital.
However, it has to be noted that neither financing by Mezzanine capital nor capital reallocation and outflow are captured by figure 2. In connection with the classification problem, this work shall moreover discuss the principle of financing freedom.
Situations requiring the supply of additional capital frequently arise in existing businesses. Possible occasions for financing are events such as major investments, acquisition of stock, the development of foreign subsidiaries or the compensation of the heirs of a deceased shareholder of a business partnership. When applying this criterion for classification of financing instruments, only the separation between permanent and temporary financing is unambiguous.
What is decisive here is whether an agreement on the date of repayment was already made at the time of first provision of the capital.
Alternatively, in the absence of such an agreement, repayment has to be determined only by the investor s within the contractual and legal limits. A reduction in equity, however, arises in the case of losses, in the case of capital withdrawals by the owners not in all company forms possible without any problems and when shareholders withdraw upon termination. A general definition of the limits for temporary financing does, however, not exist. The distinction between long-term, medium-term and short-term financing is thus arbitrary and is not performed uniformly even in the corresponding literature.
Figure 3 presents an overview of this. Source: Bieg, H. In contrast, instances of financing in which funds are provided for a period of not more than 90 days could be considered short-term financing.
Examples for corresponding instruments of financing are supplier credits, customer prepayments, acceptance credits, Lombard credits and overdraft facilities. Here it is to be noted that overdraft facilities are often used on a long-term basis in practice. What is meant by medium-term financing depends solely on the demarcation criteria for short- and long-term financing. A separation according to the duration of the provision of capital can either be made on the basis of the original loan period original maturity, according to the Deutsche Bundesbank or based on the remaining loan period residual maturity, as in the annual financial statements according to HGB.
Interestingly, the residual maturity is of particular importance for the criterion liquidity, which is relevant especially in a fiscal context. According to the international accounting standards IFRS , the term financing instruments comprises financing instruments of capital and of liabilities. To this end, the IFRS define financial instruments as contract, which gives rise to a financial asset in the one company and to a financial liability or an equity instrument in the other company IAS Trade credits are credits which are granted by the trading partners of a company.
Here a further distinction can be made between supplier credits and customer credits. In this context, credit banks can only be considered as credit grantors indirectly, since they can refinance one of the trading partners that give credit.
Supplier Credit Being an important short-term instrument of financing, the supplier credit is popular in a lot of industries. The rejection of a term of payment occurs rather infrequently. Such rejections can be a consequence of the unreliableness of a person or company, of a lack of attention for the customer due to insignificant orders or alternatively of a stressed market situation in the finance market.
Bieg, H. Schachtner, M. Jahrmann, F. L R Lola Reiter Author. Add to cart. In accordance with above mentioned, Shareholders have following rights: - Economic rights their right to sell their shares and gaining profit in form of dividends.
Regarding this, typical features of the supplier credit are for instance: 22 [ Springer Gabler : Finanzierung. Velasco, J. Ibit, Olfert, K. Sign in to write a comment.
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The money market is the arena in which financial institutions make available to a broad range of borrowers and investors the opportunity to buy and sell various forms of short-term securities. There is no physical "money market. Money markets exist both in the United States and abroad. The short-term debts and securities sold on the money markets—which are known as money market instruments—have maturities ranging from one day to one year and are extremely liquid. Treasury bills, federal agency notes, certificates of deposit CDs , eurodollar deposits, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, and repurchase agreements are examples of instruments. The suppliers of funds for money market instruments are institutions and individuals with a preference for the highest liquidity and the lowest risk. The money market is important for businesses because it allows companies with a temporary cash surplus to invest in short-term securities; conversely, companies with a temporary cash shortfall can sell securities or borrow funds on a short-term basis.
instruments and investors with long time horizons. long-term finance is less procyclical than short-term differentiate between short-term and long-term debt ) (nazarethsr.org) and.
The main sources of short-term financing are 1 trade credit, 2 commercial bank loans, 3 commercial paper, a specific type of promissory note , and 4 secured loans. A firm customarily buys its supplies and materials on credit from other firms, recording the debt as an account payable. This trade credit, as it is commonly called, is the largest single category of short-term credit.
The benefits of long-term and short-term financing can be best determined by how they align with different needs. After a company grows beyond short-term, asset-based loans, they will typically progress to short-term, cash-flow based bank loans. At the point when a company starts to gain scale and establish a track record, they may access either cash-flow or asset-based, long-term financing, which has several strategic benefits.
Financing is a very important part of every business. Firms often need financing to pay for their assets, equipment, and other important items. Financing can be either long-term or short-term. As is obvious, long-term financing is more expensive as compared to short-term financing.
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