File Name: encyclopedia of biotechnology in agriculture and food coupons.zip
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products. Governments usually implement agricultural policies with the goal of achieving a specific outcome in the domestic agricultural product markets.
In order for global climate change mitigation and adaptation to be effective a wide range of policies need to be implemented to reduce the risk of negative climate change impacts on agriculture   and greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector. An example of the breadth and types of agriculture policy concerns can be found in the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics article "Agricultural Economies of Australia and New Zealand" which says that the major challenges and issues faced by their industrial agriculture industry are:.
Encouraging agricultural growth is therefore an important aspect of agricultural policy in the developing world. In addition, a recent Natural Resource Perspective paper by the Overseas Development Institute found that good infrastructure , education and effective information services in rural areas were necessary to improve the chances of making agriculture work for the poor. The use of animal vaccines can create new viruses that kill people and cause flu pandemic threats.
H5N1 is an example of where this might have already occurred. Webster et al. The spread of H5N1 and its likely reintroduction to domestic poultry increase the need for good agricultural vaccines.
In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the way the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is masked by co-circulating influenza viruses or bad agricultural vaccines.
Robert Webster explains: "If you use a good vaccine you can prevent the transmission within poultry and to humans. But if they have been using vaccines now [in China] for several years, why is there so much bird flu? There is bad vaccine that stops the disease in the bird but the bird goes on pooping out the virus and maintaining it and changing it.
And I think this is what is going on in China. It has to be. Either there is not enough vaccine being used or there is substandard vaccine being used. Probably both. It's not just China. I think there are substandard vaccines for influenza in poultry all over the world.
In response to the same concerns, Reuters reports Hong Kong infectious disease expert Lo Wing-lok indicating that vaccines have to take top priority.
Julie Hall, who is in charge of the WHO's outbreak response in China, claimed that China's vaccinations might be masking the virus. Wendy Barclay, a virologist at the University of Reading, UK said: "The Chinese have made a vaccine based on reverse genetics made with H5N1 antigens, and they have been using it. There has been a lot of criticism of what they have done because they have protected their chickens against death from this virus but the chickens still get infected, and then you get the drift - the virus mutates in response to the antibodies - and now we have a situation where we have five or six 'flavours' of H5N1 out there.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE , commonly known as "mad cow disease", is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle , which infects by a mechanism that surprised biologists upon its discovery in the late 20th century. In the UK, the country worst affected, , cattle were infected and 4. Between , and , BSE-infected animals had entered the human food chain before controls on high-risk offal were introduced in A British inquiry into BSE concluded that the epidemic was caused by feeding cattle, who are normally herbivores , the remains of other cattle in the form of meat and bone meal MBM , which caused the infectious agent to spread.
The current scientific view is that infectious proteins called prions developed through spontaneous mutation, probably in the s, and there is a possibility that the use of organophosphorus pesticides increased the susceptibility of cattle to the disease. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious and sometimes fatal viral disease of cattle and pigs.
It can also infect deer , goats , sheep , and other bovids with cloven hooves , as well as elephants , rats , and hedgehogs. Humans are affected only very rarely. FMD occurs throughout much of the world, and while some countries have been free of FMD for some time, its wide host range and rapid spread represent cause for international concern.
In , endemic areas included Asia , Africa , and parts of South America. Most European countries have been recognized as free, and countries belonging to the European Union have stopped FMD vaccination. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease tends to occur locally, that is, the virus is passed on to susceptible animals through direct contact with infected animals or with contaminated pens or vehicles used to transport livestock.
The clothes and skin of animal handlers such as farmers, standing water, and uncooked food scraps and feed supplements containing infected animal products can harbor the virus as well. Cows can also catch FMD from the semen of infected bulls.
Control measures include quarantine and destruction of infected livestock, and export bans for meat and other animal products to countries not infected with the disease. Because FMD rarely infects humans but spreads rapidly among animals, it is a much greater threat to the agriculture industry than to human health. Farmers around the world can lose huge amounts of money during a foot-and-mouth epidemic, when large numbers of animals are destroyed and revenues from milk and meat production go down.
One of the difficulties in vaccinating against FMD is the huge variation between and even within serotypes. This means that FMD vaccines must be highly specific to the strain involved. Vaccination only provides temporary immunity that lasts from months to years. This is a point of contention. Although this disease is not dangerous to humans and rarely fatal to otherwise healthy animals, it reduces milk and meat production.
Outbreaks can be stopped quickly if farmers and transporters are forced to abide by existing rules. Therefore, besides temporary discomfort to the animals , any outbreak in the rich world should not be much more as a localized, cyclical economic problem.
For countries with free roaming wildlife it is nearly impossible to prove that they are entirely free of this disease. If they try they are forced to erect nationwide fences, which destroys wildlife migration. Because detecting and reporting of FMD have enormously improved and sped up, almost all poor countries could now safely create FMD-free export zones.
But rich countries refuse to change the rules. In effect, many poor tropical countries have no chance to meet current rules, so they are still today banned from exporting meat, even if many of them are FMD-free. The result is that if drought hits, the poor try to cope by selling their few animals. This quickly saturates regional demand. The export ban then destroys the value of these animals, in effect destroying the most important coping mechanism of several hundreds of millions extremely poor households.
The rules around meat exports have been changed many times, always to accommodate changing circumstances in rich countries, usually further reducing meat export chances for poor countries. For that reason, Kanya and many other countries find the rules very unjust. They are however discouraged to file a formal complaint with WTO by diplomats from rich countries.
Citrus canker is a disease affecting citrus species that is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis. The infection causes lesions on the leaves, stems, and fruit of citrus trees, including lime, oranges, and grapefruit. While not harmful to humans, canker significantly affects the vitality of citrus trees, causing leaves and fruit to drop prematurely; a fruit infected with canker is safe to eat but too unsightly to be sold.
The disease, which is believed to have originated in South East Asia , is extremely persistent when it becomes established in an area, making it necessary for all citrus orchards to be destroyed for the successful eradication of the disease. Australia , Brazil and the United States are currently suffering from canker outbreaks.
The disease can be detected in orchards and on fruit by the appearance of lesions. Early detection is critical in quarantine situations. Bacteria are tested for pathogenicity by inoculating multiple citrus species with the bacterium.
Simultaneously, other diagnostic tests antibody detection, fatty-acid profiling, and genetic procedures using PCR are conducted to identify the particular canker strain. Citrus canker outbreaks are prevented and managed in a number of ways. In countries that do not have canker, the disease is prevented from entering the country by quarantine measures. In countries with new outbreaks, eradication programs that are started soon after the disease has been discovered have been successful; such programs rely on the destruction of affected orchards.
When eradication has been unsuccessful and the disease has become established, management options include replacing susceptible citrus cultivars with resistant cultivars, applying preventive sprays of copper -based bactericides , and destroying infected trees and all surrounding trees within an appropriate radius. The citrus industry is the largest fresh-fruit exporting industry in Australia. The disease was found twice during the s in the Northern Territory and was eradicated each time.
The state and federal governments have ordered that all commercial orchards, all non-commercial citrus trees, and all native lime trees C. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO defines food security as existing when "all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life".
Of the 6. Food security has thus become an increasingly important topic in agricultural policy as decision makers attempt to reduce poverty and malnutrition while augmenting adaptive capacity to climate change.
The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change listed high-priority policy actions to address food security, including integrating food security and sustainable agriculture into global and national policies, significantly raising the level of global investment in food systems, and developing specific programs and policies to support the most vulnerable populations namely, those that are already subject to food insecurity.
Advocates of food sovereignty put the people who produce, distribute, and consume food at the centre of decisions on food systems and policies, rather than the demands of markets and corporations that they believe have come to dominate the global food system.
This movement is advocated by a number of farmers, peasants, pastoralists, fisherfolk, indigenous peoples, women, rural youth, and environmental organizations. An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers and agribusinesses to manage the agricultural industry as one part of the various methods a government uses in a mixed economy.
The conditions for payment and the reasons for the individual specific subsidies vary with farm product, size of the farm, nature of ownership, and country among other factors. Enriching peanut farmers for political purposes, keeping the price of a staple low to keep the poor from rebelling, stabilizing the production of a crop to avoid famine years, encouraging diversification and many other purposes have been suggested as the reason for specific subsidies. Price floors or price ceilings set a minimum or maximum price for a product.
Price controls encourage more production by a price floor or less production by a price ceiling. A government can erect trade barriers to limit the number of goods imported in the case of a Quota Share or enact tariffs to raise the domestic price of imported products. These barriers give preference to domestic producers. Some argue that nations have an interest in assuring there is sufficient domestic production capability to meet domestic needs in the event of a global supply disruption.
Significant dependence on foreign food producers makes a country strategically vulnerable in the event of war, blockade or embargo. Maintaining adequate domestic capability allows for food self-sufficiency that lessens the risk of supply shocks due to geopolitical events.
Agricultural policies may be used to support domestic producers as they gain domestic and international market share. This may be a short term way of encouraging an industry until it is large enough to thrive without aid. Or it may be an ongoing subsidy designed to allow a product to compete with or undercut the foreign competition. This may produce a net gain for a government despite the cost of interventions because it allows a country to build up an export industry or reduce imports. It also helps to form the nation's supply and demand market.
Farm or undeveloped land composes the majority of land in most countries. Policies may encourage some land uses rather than others in the interest of protecting the environment. For instance, subsidies may be given for particular farming methods, forestation, land clearance, or pollution abatement.
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Hemp , or industrial hemp , is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. It can be used to make a wide range of products. It was also one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 50, years ago. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol THC , they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content.
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Edited by a respected team of biotechnology experts, this unrivaled resource includes descriptions and interpretations of molecular biology research, including topics on the science associated with the cloning of animals, the genetic modification of plants, and the enhanced quality of foods. It discusses current and future applications of molecular biology, with contributions on disease resistance in animals, drought-resistant plants, and improved health of consumers via nutritionally enhanced foods. Rounding out its solid coverage, the encyclopedia discusses the benefits and concerns about biotechnology in the context of risk assessment, food security, and genetic diversity. US: Tel 1. The Encyclopedia of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food provides users with unprecedented access to nearly entries that cover the entire food system, describing the concepts and processes that are used in the production of raw agricultural materials and food product manufacturing. So that users can locate the information they need quickly without having to flip through pages and pages of content, the encyclopedia avoids unnecessary complication by presenting information in short, accessible overviews.
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products. Governments usually implement agricultural policies with the goal of achieving a specific outcome in the domestic agricultural product markets. In order for global climate change mitigation and adaptation to be effective a wide range of policies need to be implemented to reduce the risk of negative climate change impacts on agriculture   and greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector. An example of the breadth and types of agriculture policy concerns can be found in the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics article "Agricultural Economies of Australia and New Zealand" which says that the major challenges and issues faced by their industrial agriculture industry are:. Encouraging agricultural growth is therefore an important aspect of agricultural policy in the developing world. In addition, a recent Natural Resource Perspective paper by the Overseas Development Institute found that good infrastructure , education and effective information services in rural areas were necessary to improve the chances of making agriculture work for the poor. The use of animal vaccines can create new viruses that kill people and cause flu pandemic threats.
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Edited by a respected team of biotechnology experts, this unrivaled resource includes descriptions and interpretations of molecular biology research, including topics on the science associated with the cloning of animals, the genetic modification of plants, and the enhanced quality of foods. It discusses current and future applications of molecular biology, with contributions on disease resistance in animals, drought-resistant plants, and improved health of consumers via nutritionally enhanced foods. Rounding out its solid coverage, the encyclopedia discusses the benefits and concerns about biotechnology in the context of risk assessment, food security, and genetic diversity.
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