File Name: cocoa and coffee fermentations .zip
The growth of filamentous fungi during the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation leads to inferior cocoa bean quality and poses a health risk for consumers due to the potential accumulation of mycotoxins. We recently developed anti-fungal cultures with the capacity to inhibit the growth of mycotoxigenic filamentous fungi on cocoa beans.
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Coffee is one of the most important and widely used commercial crops in the world. After ripe coffee cherries are harvested, coffee must pass through several steps to become green raw coffee beans. Commonly, there are three different processing methods used to obtain green coffee beans from coffee cherries, namely, the wet, dry, and semidry methods. Microorganisms yeasts and bacteria play a major role in coffee fermentation process by degrading mucilage by producing different enzymes pectinase , acids, and alcohols. Starter culture development is crucial and is done by selecting microorganisms that have certain characteristics, such as mucilage degradation ability, tolerance to stress during fermentation, the ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic fungi, and a positive impact on the sensory quality of the coffee. Currently, green coffee beans obtained from farms that use any of the above processing methods are fermented with selected microorganisms to improve the flavour and aroma of the coffee.
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The first stage of chocolate production consists of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pectinaceous pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a microbial succession of a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50 degrees C and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors. Over-fermentation leads to a rise in bacilli and filamentous fungi that can cause off-flavors. The physiological roles of the predominant micro-organisms are now reasonably well understood and the crucial importance of a well-ordered microbial succession in cocoa aroma has been established. It has been possible to use a synthetic microbial cocktail inoculum of just 5 species, including members of the 3 principal groups, to mimic the natural fermentation process and yield good quality chocolate. Reduction of the amount of pectin by physical or mechanical means can also lead to an improved fermentation in reduced time and the juice can be used as a high-value byproduct.
Cocoa and coffee are two beverages derived from beans which are processed by fermentation, drying, roasting and grinding. This is in contrast to black tea which is derived from leaves which undergo withering, rolling, an enzymatic oxidative process, and drying. Fermentation of cocoa and coffee involves a number of groups of microorganisms including fungi, yeasts, acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. In this chapter, an account of the process of coffee and cocoa fermentation will be given and the role played by the lactic acid bacteria will be described. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
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Cocoa and coffee beans are some of the most traded agricultural commodities on international markets. Combined, they provide raw materials for a global.
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