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Encyclopedia Of Media And Propaganda In Wartime America Pdf

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Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America

Propaganda , dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumours, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion.

Propaganda is the dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumours, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. Deliberateness and a relatively heavy emphasis on manipulation distinguish propaganda from casual conversation or the free and easy exchange of ideas. Propaganda can be used in several areas, such as commercial advertising , public relations , political campaigns, diplomatic negotiations , legal arguments, and collective bargaining.

It can be targeted toward groups of varying size and at the local, national, or global level. Propagandists have a specified goal or set of goals. To achieve these, they deliberately select facts, arguments, and displays of symbols and present them in ways they think will have the most effect. To maximize effect, they may omit or distort pertinent facts or simply lie, and they may try to divert the attention of the reactors the people they are trying to sway from everything but their own propaganda.

Comparatively deliberate selectivity and manipulation also distinguish propaganda from education. Educators try to present various sides of an issue—the grounds for doubting as well as the grounds for believing the statements they make, and the disadvantages as well as the advantages of every conceivable course of action.

Education aims to induce reactors to collect and evaluate evidence for themselves and assists them in learning the techniques for doing so. It must be noted, however, that some propagandists may look upon themselves as educators and may believe that they are uttering the purest truth, that they are emphasizing or distorting certain aspects of the truth only to make a valid message more persuasive , or that the courses of action that they recommend are in fact the best actions that the reactor could take.

The word propaganda itself, as used in recent centuries, apparently derives from the title and work of the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide Congregation for Propagation of the Faith , an organization of Roman Catholic cardinals founded in to carry on missionary work. To many Roman Catholics the word may therefore have, at least in missionary or ecclesiastical terms, a highly respectable connotation.

Also, it is reminiscent of countless instances of false and misleading advertising especially in countries using Latin languages, in which propagande commerciale or some equivalent is a common term for commercial advertising. To informed students of the history of communism , the term propaganda has yet another connotation, associated with the term agitation.

Since he regarded both strategies as absolutely essential to political victory, he combined them in the term agitprop. Distinctions are sometimes made between overt propaganda, in which the propagandists and perhaps their backers are made known to the reactors, and covert propaganda, in which the sources are secret or disguised. Covert propaganda might include such things as political advertisements that are unsigned or signed with false names, clandestine radio stations using false names, and statements by editors, politicians, or others who have been secretly bribed by governments, political backers, or business firms.

Sophisticated diplomatic negotiation, legal argument , collective bargaining , commercial advertising, and political campaigns are of course quite likely to include considerable amounts of both overt and covert propaganda, accompanied by propaganda of the deed.

Another term related to propaganda is psychological warfare sometimes abbreviated to psychwar , which is the prewar or wartime use of propaganda directed primarily at confusing or demoralizing enemy populations or troops, putting them off guard in the face of coming attacks, or inducing them to surrender. The related concept of political warfare encompasses the use of propaganda, among many other techniques, during peacetime to intensify social and political divisions and to sow confusion within the societies of adversary states.

Still another related concept is that of brainwashing. The term usually means intensive political indoctrination. The term brainwashing was widely used in sensational journalism to refer to such activities and to many other activities as they were allegedly conducted by Maoists in China and elsewhere. Propaganda Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.

Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Literary Devices - Propaganda. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Coauthor of Propaganda, Communication and Public Opinion. See Article History. Fake news: learn what it is and how to cope with it. Top Questions.

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The United States: Isolation-Intervention

Propaganda and Public Relations, Government. Propaganda is a deliberate attempt to persuade people to think and then behave in a manner desired by the source; public relations , a branch of propaganda, is a related process intended to enhance the relationship between an organization and the public. Both, in turn, are related to advertising. Bill Backer, in The Care and Feeding of Ideas , suggests that advertising and propaganda are half brothers. An advertisement connects something with human desires; propaganda shapes the infinite into concrete images.

Propaganda , dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumours, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. Propaganda is the dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumours, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. Deliberateness and a relatively heavy emphasis on manipulation distinguish propaganda from casual conversation or the free and easy exchange of ideas. Propaganda can be used in several areas, such as commercial advertising , public relations , political campaigns, diplomatic negotiations , legal arguments, and collective bargaining. It can be targeted toward groups of varying size and at the local, national, or global level. Propagandists have a specified goal or set of goals.


nazarethsr.org: Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America [2 volumes] (): Manning, Martin J., Wyatt, Clarence R.: Books.


Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America

This fascinating compilation of reference entries documents the unique relationship between mass media, propaganda, and the U. The Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America brings together a group of distinguished scholars to explore how war has been reported and interpreted by the media in the United States and what effects those reports and interpretations have had on the people at home and on the battlefield. Covering press—U. The volumes highlight major events and important military, political, and cultural players, offering fresh perspectives on all of America's conflicts. Bringing these wars together in one source allows readers to see how media affected the conflicts individually, but also understand how the use of the various forms of media print, radio, television, film, and electronic have developed and changed over the years.

In the United States, the press played a key role in shaping public opinion toward the First World War as it shifted from mediator to belligerent. Despite the existence of voices expressing reservations stemming from diverse political philosophies, and informed by ongoing debates about class, immigration and gender, newspapers adopted a largely consistent line that stressed the economic opportunities offered by the war. While the outbreak of the First World War in Europe took many in the United States by surprise, immediate reaction to the conflict was not horror.

Propaganda is a form of persuasion that is often used in media to further some sort of agenda, such as a personal, political, or business agenda, by evoking an emotional or obligable response from the audience. To explain the close associations between media and propaganda, Richard Alan Nelson observed propaganda as a form of persuasion with intention with the aid of controlled transmission of single-sided information through mass media. Mass media, as a system for spreading and relaying information and messages to the public, plays a role in amusing, entertaining and informing individuals with rules and values that situate them in social structure.

Propaganda

W hen Indonesia struggles to fight illegal fishing in , Indonesian Navy has caught several Chinese fishing boats in its mile exclusive economic zone EEZ off the Natuna Island. After Indonesia officially sent diplomatic protest note over the incident, China replied that the seizing had no official grounded as the area was actually claimed as traditional fishing ground by China. This position may leave Indonesia in frenemy position with China.

Propaganda through media

Но в следующее мгновение послышался оглушающий визг шин, резко затормозивших на цементном полу, и шум снова накатил на Сьюзан, теперь уже сзади. Секунду спустя машина остановилась рядом с. - Мисс Флетчер! - раздался изумленный возглас, и Сьюзан увидела на водительском сиденье электрокара, похожего на те, что разъезжают по полям для гольфа, смутно знакомую фигуру. - Господи Иисусе! - воскликнул водитель.  - С вами все в порядке. Мы уж думали, вы все погибли. Сьюзан посмотрела на него отсутствующим взглядом.

Тогда он посадил его на заднее сиденье своего мотоцикла, чтобы отвезти в гостиницу, где тот остановился. Но этот канадец не знал, что ему надо держаться изо всех сил, поэтому они и трех метров не проехали, как он грохнулся об асфальт, разбил себе голову и сломал запястье. - Что? - Сьюзан не верила своим ушам. - Офицер хотел доставить его в госпиталь, но канадец был вне себя от ярости, сказав, что скорее пойдет в Канаду пешком, чем еще раз сядет на мотоцикл. Все, что полицейский мог сделать, - это проводить его до маленькой муниципальной клиники неподалеку от парка. Там он его и оставил. - Думаю, нет нужды спрашивать, куда направился Дэвид, - хмуро сказала .

У него никогда не возникало сомнений по поводу того, кто убьет Танкадо. Танкадо находился в Испании, а Испания - вотчина Халохота. Сорокадвухлетний португальский наемник был одним из лучших профессионалов, находящихся в его распоряжении. Он уже много лет работал на АНБ. Родившийся и выросший в Лиссабоне, он выполнял задания агентства по всей Европе. Его ни разу не удалось разоблачить, указав на Форт- Мид.

Citation metadata

НАЙТИ: ЗАМОК ЭКРАНА Монитор показал десяток невинных находок - и ни одного намека на копию ее персонального кода в компьютере Хейла. Сьюзан шумно вздохнула. Какими же программами он пользовался. Открыв меню последних программ, она обнаружила, что это был сервер электронной почты. Сьюзан обшарила весь жесткий диск и в конце концов нашла папку электронной почты, тщательно запрятанную среди других директорий. Открыв ее, она увидела несколько дополнительных папок; создавалось впечатление, что у Хейла было множество почтовых адресов. Один из них, к ее удивлению, был адресом анонимного провайдера.

Бринкерхофф ухмыльнулся. Деньги налогоплательщиков в действии.

 - Он перевел взгляд на схему. - Там темно как в преисподней! - закричала. Джабба вздохнул и положил фонарик рядом с. - Мидж, во-первых, там есть резервное электроснабжение. Так что полной тьмы быть не .

Но он не был готов к тому, что произошло в следующее мгновение. Сохраняя ледяное спокойствие, Сьюзан ткнула указательным пальцем в твердокаменную грудь Хейла и заставила его остановиться. Хейл в шоке отпрянул, поняв, что она не шутит: Сьюзан Флетчер никогда еще до него не дотрагивалась, даже руки не коснулась. Правда, это было не то прикосновение, какое он рисовал в воображении, представляя себе их первый физический контакт, но все же… Хейл долго с изумлением смотрел на нее, затем медленно повернулся и направился к своему терминалу.

5 Comments

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    What effect did Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst have on the Spanish-American War? What influence have embedded reporters and in-​country.

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    As the Axis forces expanded their territorial holdings in Europe and Asia, Americans debated whether to aid the Allied powers economically or militarily.

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    Propaganda played an important part in the politics of the war, but was only successful as part of wider political and military strategies.

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