File Name: overview of active directory identity and access .zip
AWS account root user — When you first create an AWS account, you begin with a single sign-in identity that has complete access to all AWS services and resources in the account. This identity is called the AWS account root user and is accessed by signing in with the email address and password that you used to create the account. We strongly recommend that you do not use the root user for your everyday tasks, even the administrative ones.
Azure AD serves as an identity management platform for Microsoft Applications, Azure Resources Manager and basically anything else you integrate it with. However, a parallel between the two solutions can be established:. The free plan is sufficient for testing purposes and offers a lot of features such as user and group management, on-premises directory synchronization, single sign-on across Azure apps, etc.
Some advanced administration and security features are only available via the two premium plans though. They will be detailed later in this article. Azure AD comes up with a lot of new terminologies, which could confuse Active Directory regulars.
The highest level of privileges is associated to the Global Admin role, which can administrate anything related with the Azure AD subscription. The term Company Admin can sometimes be encountered in place of Global Admin but they refer to the same role. The Application Administrator role is particularly interesting because, in Azure AD, everything is application. This will be very handy for an exploitation scenario detailed later in this article.
One of the most interesting aspects of Azure AD is its ability to integrate on-premises Active Directory. These services are provided by on-premises appliances. More and more enterprise applications being hosted in the cloud, it is much more efficient, in terms of latency, to implement identity services directly in Azure. In order to allow Active Directory users to use the same credentials in the on-premises environment and in the cloud, passwords hashes must be synchronized.
There are 3 ways to perform synchronization in Azure AD:. In this article, only PHS will be studied, as it is the most common option used by companies.
The following diagram from Microsoft docs provides an overview of the PHS workflow:. Password hashes of Active Directory users do not transit over the network. A hash of each password hash is being sent instead. SYNC01 being the hostname of the on-premises server where Azure AD Connect is installed and deebff4bb , an id, which changes for each environment. In order to perfom the synchronization, the two accounts require high privileges over both environments. In the second part of this article, a way to compromise an Active Directory domain configured with PHS is shown.
Azure AD implements basic security features. For example, it has a default lockout policy of 10 failed attempts, locking out an account for 60 seconds if this threshold is reached.
However, more advanced security features are also available, depending on the subscribed license. Conditional access policies are kind of if-then statements occurring when a user tries to access a resource. Access is determined depending on the signals sent by the user. The following diagram from Microsoft documentation should be more explicit:. Conditional access policies require, at least, a P1 premium license.
The following criteria can be used as signals:. To the author's knowledge, there is no way to list configured conditional access policies using PowerShell modules. They are accessible via the Azure portal and are not visible for regular users.
This tool and the whole ROADtools framework will be presented in the second part of this article. The Identity Protection feature offers a supplementary layer of protections to owner of P2 premium licenses. Relying on the data they acquired from their position in organizations with Azure AD, Microsoft is able to detect risky user behaviors. These users can, then, be treated differently by Conditional Access Policies.
For example, a user can be identified as risky if he uses a password present in a leaked database. Detection criteria can be found in Microsoft documentation.
Azure AD Security Defaults is a package of security settings protecting from common attacks such as password spraying, replay and phishing. Indeed, with Security Defaults, all users of the Azure tenant are forced to register to the Multi-Factor Authentication service within 14 days.
Members of the following sensitive administration groups are required to perform additional authentication every time they sign in:. By default, Security Defaults are not enabled, which is a bit ironic. However, Microsoft announced, in an article, that tenants created after October 22nd, might have security defaults already enabled.
It was not the case of the tenant created for this article. Azure AD offers the possibility to define password policies, which can be enforced on the on-premises Active Directory. That way, custom banned-password lists can be defined in Azure AD and enforced on the on-premises Active Directory.
The Identity Protection feature evoked earlier also comes with a pre-defined list of banned passwords. Azure AD Portal has a Monitoring section where sign-in attempts and configuration changes are traced. It is possible to send those logs to Azure Logs Analytics, for further treatment, without subscribing to a premium license. As the reader may have noticed, Azure AD comes with a lot of security features. The rest of this article will take the attacker's point of view and study what is still possible and what is not, when pentesting an Azure AD environment.
First things first, in order to know if a company uses Azure AD, one simply has to query this URL replacing the company name:. With this information, the reconnaissance phase can start. Let's see what can be done in this cloud environment. The first approach is necessarily unauthenticated, the aim of it being to retrieve a valid account. The idea is to create a list of potentially valid email addresses for the targeted company. A lot of different tools can be used for this purpose but they will not be detailed here.
Once the list of email addresses constituted, ocreeper can be used for verifying them. This part does not leave any trace in Azure AD logs, which is quite interesting from an attacker's point of view.
Now that a list of existing usernames has been established, the objective is to retrieve the password of at least one account. What are the chances that nobody, in a whole company, uses a trivial password? From experience, they are pretty low. In addition, it could be interesting to search for the obtained user accounts in leaked password databases. The password spraying approach has been chosen in order to test all the accounts with a weak, but nonetheless likely password: "Gotham". MailSniper has been used for this purpose:.
It has to be noted that Security Defaults or Conditional Access Policies features prevent such attacks. Users whom password have been discovered this way are very noticeable, thanks to these logs, available in Azure AD Sign-in menu:. Let's suppose that valid Azure AD credentials have been found, it is now possible to move on to the authenticated reconnaissance phase.
As explained in the first part of this article, there are many ways to interact with Azure AD. It seems then natural to find many tools capable of performing the reconnaissance work. The output of the tool has been voluntarily truncated to keep only the most interesting parts:. It is possible to retrieve a lot of information about the Azure AD tenant. Its synchronization with an on premises Active Directory can also be confirmed, as well as the hostname of the synchronization server.
If the LastDirSyncTime is empty, it means that the corresponding account only exists in the cloud. MailSniper , already used for the password spraying attack, can also provide interesting information. By connecting to Outlook Web Access Portal and utilizing the FindPeople method, it is able to gather the list of all email addresses:. Connecting to Exchange Service, it is also able to retrieve the Active Directory username corresponding to the given email address:.
This can be useful when having compromised the domain and trying to access high-value assets, such as the CEO's mailbox. ROADrecon is the tool for dealing with authentication and data gathering. It comes with a web GUI for visualizing the dumped data. The web user interface allows to browse all the data offered by Microsoft Graph API in a very efficient way.
For example, it is possible to list all Azure AD groups and to display the members of theses groups intuitively:. The output of this plugin is not yet integrated with web interface. It produces an HTML file named "caps. Here is an example policy created for the occasion, as collected by ROADrecon:.
This attack is not actually targeting Azure AD but exploiting one of its features in order to escalate privileges on the on-premise Active Directory domain it is synchronized with. Remember Password Hash Synchronization? As explained earlier in this post, a synchronisation account is created by Azure AD Connect on the on-premises Active Directory. Because he is in charge of sending hashes of user password hashes to the cloud, this user has replication privileges on the domain :.
This account is capable of replicating every domain users hashes, which makes it a very interesting target for attackers. Well, let's see how we could retrieve its password. The first step resides in finding the server where Azure AD Connect is installed. It can be queried by any authenticated user on the domain, as such:. Once the server identified, we will need either a local administrator account or ADSync service account, in order to interact with Azure AD Connect database.
It is important to note that this technique is rather stealth and is not identified, at the time of the writing, by an up-to-date Windows Defender as a malicious behavior. Having a local administrator account on the server, it would also be possible to retrieve MSOL password in the memory of the lsass. This operation, however, is way more suspicious and would be easily detected by an experimented blue team.
Using the newly obtained MSOL account, it is now possible to perform a DCSync attack and to replicate all domain users password hashes:. It should not be forgotten that, this account is also valid, and highly-privileged, in the cloud.
Failure of IAM initiatives has been a common problem over the last several years, but Sander writes that only recently has it become clear that the cause for many of those failures stem from contorted Active Directories. When line of business folks try to implement Active Directory log ins for accessing cloud platforms without talking to the IT folks who handle AD, they often:. Data center folks move forward with huge virtualization roll outs and get tripped up by redundant and even recursive structures in AD group memberships. How is this happening? Sander gives us an example of the troubles that can arise from an unkempt AD.
Students will learn the skills you need to better manage and protect data access and information, simplify deployment and management of your identity infrastructure, and provide more secure access to data from virtually anywhere. Skip to Available Dates. After completing this course, students will be able to: Understand available solutions for identity management and be able to address scenarios with appropriate solutions. Secure AD DS deployment. Monitor, troubleshoot and establish business continuity for AD DS services.
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Developer Documentation. No results found. Salesforce Identity is an identity and access management IAM service with the following features. Connected apps use these protocols to authenticate, authorize, and provide single sign-on SSO for external apps. The external apps that are integrated with Salesforce can run on the customer success platform, other platforms, devices, or SaaS subscriptions. GDPR expands the privacy rights of EU individuals and places new obligations on all organizations that market, track, or handle EU personal data. We use three kinds of cookies on our websites: required, functional, and advertising.
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