File Name: soil water and air pollution .zip
What are the two major causes of eutrophication?
Home Special Issues Special Issue 21 2. Acting for healthy indoor air Using plants and soil microbes to Phytoremediation is the process by which plants and their root microbes remove contaminants from both air and water. Those purifying properties have been discovered within the frame of space habitation experiments: in the s, scientists at the John C.
Concurrently, the experiments led by Mark Nelson on Biosphere 2 demonstrated that high levels of crop productivity and maintenance of soil fertility can be maintained while biofiltration of the air is also achieved. Both experiments conclude that plant biofiltration is a promising technology that can help solve widespread global problems caused by air pollution. These solutions have a wide scope of application, and they require far lower capital investment and have lower operating costs than competing technologies.
As such, they should be far more widely applied, especially within indoor areas. We understand these functions in nature, yet many have a difficult time envisioning these same processes filtering the air and water within our built spaces. Synthetic materials, equipment and digital devices also release trace gases.
In order to conserve energy, modern buildings are tightly-sealed. As a result, a build-up of this variety of outgassing sources including airborne microbes and volatile organic chemicals VOCs often leads to poor indoor air quality IAQ. Indoor air pollution is now rated among the top five threats to human health. Most buildings bring in fresh air through an outside duct and mix it with re-circulated air.
However, ventilation has four inherent problems: energy efficiency is compromised; outside air is often heavily polluted; outside air must be heated or cooled for human comfort; we can question how environmentally responsible it is to inject indoor air pollutants into the outside environment.
Plant and soil-based systems, in part derived from systems designed for futuristic outer space exploration, can be part of the answer, bringing us back to fundamental processes that sustain life on earth. Scientists at the John C. NASA has within its charter that it should also seek applicability here on earth, such as treating environmental pollution. SSC scientists developed and installed constructed wetlands, now termed phytoremediation systems, to treat both domestic and industrial wastewaters at the facility.
These plant-based systems have successfully treated wastewater for more than forty years, twice the average lifespan of conventional mechanical systems and saved NASA millions of dollars in operational costs 1. NASA first published its findings in 2 3.
The interior space was subdivided into a one-person habitat and a bioregenerative component whose basic functions were air purification and wastewater treatment 4. Upon entering the facility, most people experienced burning eyes and throat and respiratory problems. Additionally, they placed one experimental fan-assisted planter containing a plant growing in a mixture of soil and activated carbon. During the early s, studies sought to determine the mechanisms plant ecosystems utilize to remove VOCs from sealed chambers.
Questions arose whether plants could remove VOCs that were continually off-gassed from synthetic materials as commonly occurs in an indoor environment. Plexiglas test chamber used in the experiments conducted by Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. WES conducted extensive studies 5 6. They had constructed two Plexiglas test chambers. Scientists placed two sections of interior paneling comprising urea-formaldehyde resins into each chamber.
A lady palm Rhapis excelsa was added to one chamber while the other chamber, serving as a control chamber, did not contain a plant. Temperature influenced the rate at which formaldehyde off-gassed from the paneling. The greater the temperature, the more rapidly formaldehyde was released. There was no removal of formaldehyde in the control chamber.
In fact, the lady palm increased its ability to remove formaldehyde as its exposure time increased. These studies indicated that plant root and soil microbes had rapidly adapted to the presence of formaldehyde and had contributed significantly to the chemical removal process.
Further studies sought to determine the extent of plant root and soil microbe involvement in the removal of chemicals. Formaldehyde and xylene were introduced individually into sealed chambers containing plants having either exposed potting soil or soil covered with sterilized sand. Studies show that 90 percent of these substances are converted into sugars, new plant material and oxygen. They used radioactive carbon tracers to follow how the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum L.
While moving water up from their roots to their leaves, a small convection current is created pulling air down to the root zone. Through this process, a plant not only moves atmospheric gases such as oxygen and nitrogen to its root zone, but also airborne chemicals. To go further, WES has sought to build upon their pioneering research and has concentrated its studies upon the use of hydroculture rather than potting soil.
Indeed, hydroculture offers several advantages for use in the indoor environment uses no soil, reduces over-watering and spillage, reduces risk of growing molds, reduces the need to transplant, plants take only the moisture they need. These air filters employ a mechanical fan to pull air down through highly adsorptive substrate in which an interior plant is grown.
The substrate traps any airborne contaminants, where microbes in the rhizosphere break them down into components that serve as a source of food and energy for themselves and their host plant. Because microbes rapidly adapt to become more efficient with exposure, a bioregenerative or self-cleaning filter is created.
These products are highly effective in VOC removal in small, confined spaces such as office cubicles or specific rooms within a living space. Amongst the many challenges of creating a virtually materially closed environment was achieving regeneration and maintenance of healthy air and water. The first was that B.
Wolverton had also been one of the first to study the efficacy of plants to improve indoor air quality showing that common houseplants could effectively remove typical indoor air contaminants such as volatile organic compounds The second was meeting Hinrinch Bohn, a professor at the nearby University of Arizona, who came from Germany, a country where the technology had begun in the early part of the 20 th century. It is even considered best management practice for control of industrial malodor caused by pollutant gases Increased soil organic matter increases its effectiveness, leading to the use of compost and amended soils.
The range of potential pollutant trace gases amenable to control by soil biofiltration is large — though much research remains to be done. But limitations include the rule of thumb that soil biofiltration can only work on gases that burn in air are capable of oxidation.
Neither is the technology capable of treating extremely concentrated pollution loads. Soil biofiltration engineering includes maintaining optimal moisture content and operating temperature, choice of substrate for desired porosity, surface area and soil organic matter content Test modules of closed ecological systems from the Biosphere 2 experiments.
Construction for the project started in and the first mission began in September The first question was whether growing plants could be combined with soil biofiltration. To test this, seventy-two beds growing food crops equipped with air pumps to push greenhouse air up through the soils were tested at the Environmental Research Laboratory ERL at the University of Arizona. These studies demonstrated that there were no negative impacts on crop growth and productivity.
In fact, yields were somewhat enhanced, probably because soils were well-aerated This research coupled with similar tests using sealed aquaria at ERL examined the effectiveness of the technology and the impacts of factors such as flow rates, prior exposure of the soil microbiota to the specific trace gases and soil type and organic content of the soils 17 , Prototype unit used in the Mission Control building of the Biosphere 2 project.
Interior plants are more effective in removing harmful airborne pollutants in tightly-sealed buildings than in heavily ventilated buildings. No filtering device can effectively clean the air within a building when mechanical ventilation is constantly bringing in outside air.
Outside air, especially in metropolitan areas, is often laden with pollutants. Additionally, a building is not energy-efficient if outside air is continually heated or cooled to a temperature range for human comfort. Evidence collected during the past twenty years overwhelmingly supports the beneficial health effects of interior plants. Living plants also remove carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Although the purifying power of plants has stirred controversy over the past years, the ability of plants to remove volatile chemical toxins under laboratory conditions and in airtight spaces is not doubted.
Moreover, it requires far lower capital investment and has lower operating costs than competing technologies. However, there is enormous scope for the expanded use of this technology. The transformation of indoor house plants, office green spaces such as atriums and even city vegetation, e. Trending within buildings at the moment are systems known by a variety of names, including green walls, living walls, bio-walls or vertical gardens.
These systems are installed primarily for aesthetics. Very few take the concept a step further to employ the biological functions of plants and microbes to help improve IAQ. An exception is Takenaka Garden Afforestation, Inc. This process reduces the need for outside ventilation. McDonald and E. Watkins, Jr. McDonald and H. Mesick, Foliage plants for the indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, J. MS Acad. Johnson and K. Wolverton, Plants and soil microorganisms — removal of formaldehyde, xylene and ammonia from the indoor environment, J.
Wolverton, Interior plants: their influence on airborne microbes inside energy-efficient buildings, J. Wood, RA, et al. Journal of Applied Horticulture 15 1 : 10? Bauer-Doranth, C. Langebartels and H. Sandermann, Jr. Burgess, A. Alling N. Alvarez-Romo, W. Dempster, R.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In , pollution killed 9 million people worldwide. Major forms of pollution include air pollution , light pollution , litter , noise pollution , plastic pollution , soil contamination , radioactive contamination , thermal pollution , visual pollution , and water pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations.
Metrics details. A mounting body of the literature suggests that environmental chemicals found in food and water could affect female reproduction. The potential impact of Bisphenol A BPA , Phthalates and Perfluoroalkyl substances PFAS on female reproduction, in particular on puberty, PCOS pathogenesis, infertility, ovarian function, endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss, in both humans and animals, will be discussed in this report in order to provide greater clinician and public awareness about the potential consequences of these chemicals. Thus proper education about these chemicals can help individuals decide to limit exposure, ultimately alleviating the risk on future generations. The constantly increasing pollution of the environment has been one of the greatest concerns for science and the general public in the last few decades. Water and soil pollutants represent two major categories of environmental pollution [ 1 ]. Water- and soil-polluting substances are often due to man-made wastes such as household garbage, manufacturing and agricultural wastes, fertilizers used by farmers, oil spills, and radioactive materials [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].
NCBI Bookshelf. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Environmental pollution has many facets, and the resultant health risks include diseases in almost all organ systems. Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases chapter 19 , respiratory diseases in children and adults chapters 25 and 35 , cancers chapter 29 , neurological disorders chapter 32 , and cardiovascular disease chapter 33 , as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues. Each pollutant has its own health risk profile, which makes summarizing all relevant information into a short chapter difficult. Nevertheless, public health practitioners and decision makers in developing countries need to be aware of the potential health risks caused by air and water pollution and to know where to find the more detailed information required to handle a specific situation.
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. An International Journal of Environmental Pollution. Editor-in-Chief: J. Trevors. ▷ Covers all aspects of pollution and solutions to.
This includes chemical, physical and biological processes affecting flora, fauna, water, air and soil in relation to environmental pollution. Because of its scope, the subject areas are diverse and include all aspects of pollution sources, transport, deposition, accumulation, acid precipitation, atmospheric pollution, metals, aquatic pollution including marine pollution and ground water, waste water, pesticides, soil pollution, sewage, sediment pollution, forestry pollution, effects of pollutants on humans, vegetation, fish, aquatic species, micro-organisms, and animals, environmental and molecular toxicology applied to pollution research, biosensors, global and climate change, ecological implications of pollution and pollution models.
АНБ пригласило Беккера, потому что имелось подозрение, что оригинал был написан на мандаринском диалекте китайского языка, и ему предстояло переводить иероглифы по мере их дешифровки. В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами. Очевидно, получалась бессмыслица. Желая помочь, Беккер обратил их внимание на то, что все показанные ему иероглифы объединяет нечто общее - они одновременно являются и иероглифами кандзи.
Дэвид посмотрел ей в глаза: - Ты выйдешь за меня замуж. У нее перехватило дыхание.
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