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Mathematics relies on both logic and creativity, and it is pursued both for a variety of practical purposes and for its intrinsic interest. For some people, and not only professional mathematicians, the essence of mathematics lies in its beauty and its intellectual challenge. For others, including many scientists and engineers, the chief value of mathematics is how it applies to their own work.

Because mathematics plays such a central role in modern culture, some basic understanding of the nature of mathematics is requisite for scientific literacy. To achieve this, students need to perceive mathematics as part of the scientific endeavor, comprehend the nature of mathematical thinking, and become familiar with key mathematical ideas and skills.

This chapter focuses on mathematics as part of the scientific endeavor and then on mathematics as a process, or way of thinking. Recommendations related to mathematical ideas are presented in Chapter 9, The Mathematical World, and those on mathematical skills are included in Chapter 12, Habits of Mind. Mathematics is the science of patterns and relationships. As a theoretical discipline, mathematics explores the possible relationships among abstractions without concern for whether those abstractions have counterparts in the real world.

The abstractions can be anything from strings of numbers to geometric figures to sets of equations. In addressing, say, "Does the interval between prime numbers form a pattern? In deriving, for instance, an expression for the change in the surface area of any regular solid as its volume approaches zero, mathematicians have no interest in any correspondence between geometric solids and physical objects in the real world.

A central line of investigation in theoretical mathematics is identifying in each field of study a small set of basic ideas and rules from which all other interesting ideas and rules in that field can be logically deduced. Mathematicians, like other scientists, are particularly pleased when previously unrelated parts of mathematics are found to be derivable from one another, or from some more general theory. Part of the sense of beauty that many people have perceived in mathematics lies not in finding the greatest elaborateness or complexity but on the contrary, in finding the greatest economy and simplicity of representation and proof.

These cross-connections enable insights to be developed into the various parts; together, they strengthen belief in the correctness and underlying unity of the whole structure. Mathematics is also an applied science. Many mathematicians focus their attention on solving problems that originate in the world of experience. They too search for patterns and relationships, and in the process they use techniques that are similar to those used in doing purely theoretical mathematics.

The difference is largely one of intent. In contrast to theoretical mathematicians, applied mathematicians, in the examples given above, might study the interval pattern of prime numbers to develop a new system for coding numerical information, rather than as an abstract problem.

The results of theoretical and applied mathematics often influence each other. Studies on the mathematical properties of random events, for example, led to knowledge that later made it possible to improve the design of experiments in the social and natural sciences.

Conversely, in trying to solve the problem of billing long-distance telephone users fairly, mathematicians made fundamental discoveries about the mathematics of complex networks. Theoretical mathematics, unlike the other sciences, is not constrained by the real world, but in the long run it contributes to a better understanding of that world.

Because of its abstractness, mathematics is universal in a sense that other fields of human thought are not. It finds useful applications in business, industry, music, historical scholarship, politics, sports, medicine, agriculture, engineering, and the social and natural sciences. The relationship between mathematics and the other fields of basic and applied science is especially strong. This is so for several reasons, including the following:. Using mathematics to express ideas or to solve problems involves at least three phases: 1 representing some aspects of things abstractly, 2 manipulating the abstractions by rules of logic to find new relationships between them, and 3 seeing whether the new relationships say something useful about the original things.

Aspects that they have in common, whether concrete or hypothetical, can be represented by symbols such as numbers, letters, other marks, diagrams, geometrical constructions, or even words.

Whole numbers are abstractions that represent the size of sets of things and events or the order of things within a set. And abstractions are made not only from concrete objects or processes; they can also be made from other abstractions, such as kinds of numbers the even numbers, for instance. Such abstraction enables mathematicians to concentrate on some features of things and relieves them of the need to keep other features continually in mind.

As far as mathematics is concerned, it does not matter whether a triangle represents the surface area of a sail or the convergence of two lines of sight on a star; mathematicians can work with either concept in the same way.

After abstractions have been made and symbolic representations of them have been selected, those symbols can be combined and recombined in various ways according to precisely defined rules. Sometimes that is done with a fixed goal in mind; at other times it is done in the context of experiment or play to see what happens. Sometimes an appropriate manipulation can be identified easily from the intuitive meaning of the constituent words and symbols; at other times a useful series of manipulations has to be worked out by trial and error.

Typically, strings of symbols are combined into statements that express ideas or propositions. The rules of ordinary algebra can then be used to discover that if the length of the sides of a square is doubled, the square's area becomes four times as great. More generally, this knowledge makes it possible to find out what happens to the area of a square no matter how the length of its sides is changed, and conversely, how any change in the area affects the sides.

Although they began in the concrete experience of counting and measuring, they have come through many layers of abstraction and now depend much more on internal logic than on mechanical demonstration. The test for the validity of new ideas is whether they are consistent and whether they relate logically to the other rules.

Mathematical processes can lead to a kind of model of a thing, from which insights can be gained about the thing itself. Any mathematical relationships arrived at by manipulating abstract statements may or may not convey something truthful about the thing being modeled.

However, if 2 cups of sugar are added to 3 cups of hot tea and the same operation is used, 5 is an incorrect answer, for such an addition actually results in only slightly more than 4 cups of very sweet tea.

To be able to use and interpret mathematics well, therefore, it is necessary to be concerned with more than the mathematical validity of abstract operations and to also take into account how well they correspond to the properties of the things represented. Sometimes common sense is enough to enable one to decide whether the results of the mathematics are appropriate.

For example, to estimate the height 20 years from now of a girl who is 5' 5" tall and growing at the rate of an inch per year, common sense suggests rejecting the simple "rate times time" answer of 7' 1" as highly unlikely, and turning instead to some other mathematical model, such as curves that approach limiting values.

Often a single round of mathematical reasoning does not produce satisfactory conclusions, and changes are tried in how the representation is made or in the operations themselves.

Indeed, jumps are commonly made back and forth between steps, and there are no rules that determine how to proceed. The process typically proceeds in fits and starts, with many wrong turns and dead ends. This process continues until the results are good enough.

But what degree of accuracy is good enough? The answer depends on how the result will be used, on the consequences of error, and on the likely cost of modeling and computing a more accurate answer.

For example, an error of 1 percent in calculating the amount of sugar in a cake recipe could be unimportant, whereas a similar degree of error in computing the trajectory for a space probe could be disastrous. The importance of the "good enough" question has led, however, to the development of mathematical processes for estimating how far off results might be and how much computation would be required to obtain the desired degree of accuracy.

This is so for several reasons, including the following: The alliance between science and mathematics has a long history, dating back many centuries.

Science provides mathematics with interesting problems to investigate, and mathematics provides science with powerful tools to use in analyzing data. Often, abstract patterns that have been studied for their own sake by mathematicians have turned out much later to be very useful in science.

Science and mathematics are both trying to discover general patterns and relationships, and in this sense they are part of the same endeavor. Mathematics is the chief language of science. The symbolic language of mathematics has turned out to be extremely valuable for expressing scientific ideas unambiguously. Mathematics and science have many features in common. These include a belief in understandable order; an interplay of imagination and rigorous logic; ideals of honesty and openness; the critical importance of peer criticism; the value placed on being the first to make a key discovery; being international in scope; and even, with the development of powerful electronic computers, being able to use technology to open up new fields of investigation.

Mathematics and technology have also developed a fruitful relationship with each other. The mathematics of connections and logical chains, for example, has contributed greatly to the design of computer hardware and programming techniques. Mathematics also contributes more generally to engineering, as in describing complex systems whose behavior can then be simulated by computer.

In those simulations, design features and operating conditions can be varied as a means of finding optimum designs. For its part, computer technology has opened up whole new areas in mathematics, even in the very nature of proof, and it also continues to help solve previously daunting problems.

Manipulating Mathematical Statements After abstractions have been made and symbolic representations of them have been selected, those symbols can be combined and recombined in various ways according to precisely defined rules.

Application Mathematical processes can lead to a kind of model of a thing, from which insights can be gained about the thing itself.

The language of mathematics is the system used by mathematicians to communicate mathematical ideas among themselves, and is distinct from natural languages in that it aims to communicate abstract, logical ideas with precision and unambiguity. This language consists of a substrate of some natural language e. It is also supplemented by a highly specialized symbolic notation for mathematical formulas. Similar to natural languages, discourse using the language of mathematics can employ a scala of registers. Research articles in academic journals are sources for detailed theoretical discussions about ideas concerning mathematics and its implications for society. Mathematical notation has assimilated symbols from many different alphabets e. Mathematical notation is central to the power of modern mathematics.

Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. It only takes a minute to sign up. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. I am taking linear algebra and none of this stuff is expained. It is not defined anywhere in my book and it is exceptionally frustrating trying to read this For instance:. In other words, all even numbers are multiples of 2.

This is not a comprehensive dictionary of mathematical terms, just a quick reference for some of the terms commonly used in this website. Bayesian probability: a popular interpretation of probability which evaluates the probability of a hypothesis by specifying some prior probability, and then updating in the light of new relevant data. Boolean algebra or logic: a type of algebra which can be applied to the solution of logical problems and mathematical functions, in which the variables are logical rather than numerical, and in which the only operators are AND, OR and NOT. Cartesian coordinates: a pair of numerical coordinates which specify the position of a point on a plane based on its distance from the the two fixed perpendicular axes which, with their positive and negative values, split the plane up into four quadrants. Diophantine equation: a polynomial equation with integer coefficients that also allows the variables and solutions to be integers only. Fermat primes: prime numbers that are one more than a power of 2 and where the exponent is itself a power of 2 , e. Fibonacci numbers series : a set of numbers formed by adding the last two numbers to get the next in the series: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, ….

Mathematics relies on both logic and creativity, and it is pursued both for a variety of practical purposes and for its intrinsic interest. For some people, and not only professional mathematicians, the essence of mathematics lies in its beauty and its intellectual challenge. For others, including many scientists and engineers, the chief value of mathematics is how it applies to their own work. Because mathematics plays such a central role in modern culture, some basic understanding of the nature of mathematics is requisite for scientific literacy. To achieve this, students need to perceive mathematics as part of the scientific endeavor, comprehend the nature of mathematical thinking, and become familiar with key mathematical ideas and skills.

Home About Wiki Tools Contacts. Computerized typesetting. This is a cheat sheet for writing mathematics with L a T e X.

У нее часто возникало чувство, что Стратмор не слишком высокого мнения о Дэвиде и считает, что она могла бы найти себе кого-то поинтереснее, чем простой преподаватель. - Коммандер, - сказала она, - если вы инструктировали Дэвида сегодня утром по телефону из машины, кто-то мог перехватить… - Один шанс на миллион, - возразил Стратмор, стараясь ее успокоить. - Подслушивающий должен был находиться в непосредственной близости и точно знать, что надо подслушивать.

У Танкадо не было причин подозревать, что код в Интернете не является оригиналом. Никто не имел к нему доступа, кроме него самого и Северной Дакоты. Если бы Танкадо не вернулся к анализу программы после ее выпуска свет, он ничего бы не узнал про этот черный ход. Но он так долго трудился над Цифровой крепостью, что вряд ли ему захотелось бы к ней возвращаться.

А потом мы могли бы… - Выкинь это из головы. - Сколько в тебе снобизма. - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру. В этом вся ее сущность. Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла.

- Почему среди нас нет ни одного ядерного физика. Сьюзан, глядя на мультимедийный клип, понимала, что все кончено. Она следила за смертью Танкадо - в который уже. Он хотел говорить, но слова застревали у него в горле.

*В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое. Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток.*

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