File Name: lymphatic system parts and functions .zip
The lymphatic system is a collection of structures and vessels that drains lymph from blood and has several other functions. It is a circulatory system for lymph fluid and the site of many key immune system functions.
The major components of the lymphatic system include lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic organs that contain lymphoid tissues. Lymphatic vessels are structures that absorb fluid that diffuses from blood vessel capillaries into surrounding tissues.
This fluid is directed toward lymph nodes to be filtered and ultimately re-enters blood circulation through veins located near the heart. The smallest lymphatic vessels are called lymph capillaries. Lymphatic capillaries come together to form larger lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels from various regions of the body merge to form larger vessels called lymphatic trunks.
Lymphatic trunks merge to form two larger lymphatic ducts. Lymphatic ducts return lymph to the blood circulation by draining lymph into the subclavian veins in the neck. Lymphatic vessels transport lymph to lymph nodes. Lymph nodes also filter cellular waste, dead cells, and cancerous cells. Lymph nodes house immune cells called lymphocytes. These cells are necessary for the development of humoral immunity defense prior to cell infection and cell-mediated immunity defense after cell infection.
Lymph enters a node through afferent lymphatic vessels, filters as it passes through channels in the node called sinuses, and leaves the node through an efferent lymphatic vessel. The thymus gland is the main organ of the lymphatic system. Its primary function is to promote the development of specific cells of the immune system called T-lymphocytes.
Once mature, these cells leave the thymus and are transported via blood vessels to the lymph nodes and spleen. T-lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, which is an immune response that involves the activation of certain immune cells to fight infection. In addition to immune function, the thymus also produces hormones that promote growth and maturation.
The spleen is the largest organ of the lymphatic system. Its primary function is to filter the blood of damaged cells, cellular debris, and pathogens. Like the thymus, the spleen houses and aids in the maturation of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes destroy pathogens and dead cells in the blood. The spleen is rich in blood supplied via the splenic artery.
The spleen also contains efferent lymphatic vessels, which transport lymph away from the spleen and toward lymph nodes. Tonsils are arrays of lymphatic tissue located in the upper throat region. Tonsils house lymphocytes and other white blood cells called macrophages. These immune cells protect the digestive tract and lungs from disease-causing agents that enter the mouth or nose.
Bone marrow is the soft, flexible tissue found inside bone. Bone marrow is responsible for the production of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Bone marrow stem cells play an important role in immunity as they generate lymphocytes. While some white blood cells mature in bone marrow, certain types of lymphocytes migrate to lymphatic organs, such as the spleen and thymus, to mature into fully functioning lymphocytes.
Lymphatic tissue can also be found in other areas of the body, such as the skin, stomach, and small intestines. Lymphatic system structures extend throughout most regions of the body. One notable exception is the central nervous system. The lymphatic system plays a vital role in the proper functioning of the body. Returning lymph to the blood helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure. It also prevents edema, the excess accumulation of fluid around tissues. As such, one of its essential functions involves the development and circulation of immune cells, specifically lymphocytes.
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The major encapsulated lymphatic organs are the lymph nodes, thymus and spleen. In addition the lymphoid tissues include:. Fluid in the spaces between tissues is called interstitial fluid , or 'tissue fluid'. This provides the cells of the body with nutrients via the blood supply and a means of waste removal. Lymph is formed when the interstitial fluid is collected through tiny lymph capillaries see diagram , which are located throughout the body. It is then transported through lymph vessels to lymph nodes, which clean and filter it.
The major components of the lymphatic system include lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic organs that contain lymphoid tissues. Lymphatic vessels are structures that absorb fluid that diffuses from blood vessel capillaries into surrounding tissues. This fluid is directed toward lymph nodes to be filtered and ultimately re-enters blood circulation through veins located near the heart. The smallest lymphatic vessels are called lymph capillaries. Lymphatic capillaries come together to form larger lymphatic vessels.
The immune system is the complex collection of cells and organs that destroys or neutralizes pathogens that would otherwise cause disease or death. The lymphatic system, for most people, is associated with the immune system to such a degree that the two systems are virtually indistinguishable. The lymphatic system is the system of vessels, cells, and organs that carries excess fluids to the bloodstream and filters pathogens from the blood.
Lymphatic system , a subsystem of the circulatory system in the vertebrate body that consists of a complex network of vessels, tissues , and organs. The lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance in the body by collecting excess fluid and particulate matter from tissues and depositing them in the bloodstream. It also helps defend the body against infection by supplying disease-fighting cells called lymphocytes. This article focuses on the human lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It also maintains fluid balance and plays a role in absorbing fats and fat-soluble nutrients. The lymphatic or lymph system involves an extensive network of vessels that passes through almost all our tissues to allow for the movement of a fluid called lymph. Lymph circulates through the body in a similar way to blood. There are about lymph nodes in the body.
The lymphatic system , or lymphoid system , is an organ system in vertebrates that is part of the circulatory system and the immune system. It is made up of a large network of lymph, lymphatic vessels , lymph nodes, lymphatic or lymphoid organs, and lymphoid tissues. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system. The human circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration , which removes plasma from the blood.
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Фонтейн стоял, тяжело дыша. - У нас нет причин ему не верить. - Это прозвучало как сигнал к окончанию разговора. Он отпил глоток кофе. - А теперь прошу меня извинить. Мне нужно поработать. У Мидж отвисла челюсть.
Делай свою распечатку и выметайся! - зарычал. - Si, senor, - засмеявшись, ответила Мидж с подчеркнутым пуэрто-риканским акцентом и, подмигнув Бринкерхоффу, направилась к двойной двери директорского кабинета. Личный кабинет Лиланда Фонтейна ничем не походил на остальные помещения дирекции. В нем не было ни картин, ни мягкой мебели, ни фикусов в горшках, ни антикварных часов. Здесь все было подчинено одному требованию - эффективности.
Трудно было даже пошевельнуться: события вчерашнего дня вычерпали все ее силы без остатка. - Дэвид… - тихо простонала. Ответа не последовало. Она открыла глаза, не в состоянии даже протянуть руку. Простыня на его половине кровати была холодной. Дэвид исчез.
Не дождавшись ответа, он вошел.
Фонтейн не мог понять, в чем дело, но, какими бы ни были причины ее состояния, выяснять это сейчас не было времени. - Нужно решать, сэр! - требовал Джабба. - Немедленно.
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Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Что?! - хором вскричали Бринкерхофф и Фонтейн. - Он пытался, сэр! - Мидж помахала листком бумаги. - Уже четыре раза.
Вы же мой шеф. Вы заместитель директора АНБ. Он не мог отказаться.
- Не вижу чистоты. Джабба занес палец над клавишей Ввод. - Давайте же, - скомандовал Фонтейн.
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